The Russian ethnic cuisine - what it?
walk across Russia Long ago a saying which describes poor food of Russians: “Russian cabbage soup yes porridge - our food!“ And whether there was it in old times such poor? Let`s glance
From where Russian cuisinewent
to Kievan Rus` the 12th century. In those far times in food of the population rye bread, various porridges, fish, milk, vegetables and “pasture“ figured prominently: mushrooms, wild berries, herbs, and also honey. Meat was infrequently on a table of commoners. Kissels which were prepared from rye and oatmeal were very popular. Ancient kissels were very dense. Perhaps, therefore the dairy rivers and a land of milk and honey as one of the popular expressions symbolizing comfortable life are mentioned in ancient Russian fairy tales.
In Ancient Russia porridge not only grain dishes, and practically everything that was welded from small cut products prepared with flour or grain called. It is possible to meet, for example, a mention of fish porridges in annalistic reports of that time.
When in Russia it was adopted Christianity by , occurred division of food on fast , including vegetable, fish and mushroom components, and ferial , consisting of milk, eggs and meat. In Kievan Rus` the population most often ate pork, is more rare beef. On canons of Russian Orthodox Church in a calendar of fast days it is more, than ferial. From this it follows that at Russians meat was not the main food product.
The diet of modern Russians was finally created about 350 years ago. In three centuries there were some changes which had both positive, and negative value. For example, in a diet of residents of Russia new vegetables and grain crops appeared: potatoes, tomatoes, corn, but gradually disappeared such useful vegetable products as turnip, a swede, lentil.
History with the advent of potatoes on the Russian fields was difficult. In the 19th century Russia potato revolts - mass actions of peasants captured . Their reason was covered that under crops of potatoes the best lands violently took away from peasants, and - punished for refusal and taxed. But over time people understood that potatoes yielded twice bigger a harvest, than grain, and was steadier against severe weather conditions of the country.
of Feature of Russian cuisine From time immemorial a diet of the Russian people was very modest
. But from a limited set of products it was possible to prepare a huge variety of dishes. In other words, Russian cuisine was always various and tasty.
There is a set of primordially Russian dishes, for example, of pancakes . Nobody will definitely tell when they appeared for the first time on a table. One that pancakes were already known at the pagan Slavic people is for certain known. They were used for different rituals: were obligatory on commemoration, fed with them the woman in labor. And the known ancient pagan holiday - Maslenitsa when before the Lent in houses pancakes bake the whole week and eat with fish, caviar, meat or mushrooms.
One more primordially Russian food is black bread . In Russia it is impossible to present any meal without hlebushka. For the first time it appeared in the 10th century and at once became popular and favourite among the rich and the poor. White loaf appeared considerably later.
And who does not know the Russian pies ?. In Russia from time immemorial baked pies with a various stuffing: with meat, fish, eggs, cottage cheese, mushrooms, cabbage, with berries and fruit. Pies still - one of favourite Russian dishes which can be eaten as at restaurants, and on a visit.
National peculiarity of Russian cuisine is a great popularity of various soups . Liquid dishes (soups, hlebovo, a soup) were always present at a table. So far the lunch without soup for Russians is not a lunch, and so - easy having a snack. Soups happen hot and cold. The first category includes Russian cabbage soup, rassolniks, fish soup, solyankas, borsches. Cold soups are especially popular in the summer. Who does not like to try some tasty okroshka with kvass or to satisfy hunger with good beetroot soup!
We already know that in Russia porridges were one of usual dishes on a table. And whether porridge could decorate a holiday table? In 1883 during a solemn lunch honor of crowning of the Russian emperor Nicholas II was offered guests as one of delicacies yachnevy porridge. Still Peter I called this porridge of darling of the Raman! And whether you know that barley grits were renamed in pearl-barley (fr. perle - a pearl)? The porridge decorating meals of the Russian tsars could not be called yachnevy!
It is impossible to ignore also the Russian “veselitelny“ drinks. Till the 15th century in Russia were able to produce a mead, home brew and cooked beer. At the beginning of the 15th century from Italy to Russia vodka was delivered. But only at Pyotr Alekseevich liking to drink well and tasty to have a snack, vodka became the most popular drink. In those days the concept “vodka“ was very foggy as there was no uniform standard of fortress for this drink. Only in the 19th century D. I. Mendeleyev created theoretical base for modern vodka. He stated the concept very briefly: “Vodka is a product for which production the grain alcohol divorced on weight spring water to 40 degrees is used“. In 1894 “mendeleevsky vodka“ was patented. Since then it is possible to consider that vodka is the main Russian national hot drink.
That the Russian cuisine borrowed from other countries
With the beginning of the 18th century on Russian cuisine a great influence began to exert Europe. In rich noble families during that time it was fashionable to have the cook - the Frenchman. Thanks to it to “culinary invasion of French“ into Russian cuisine on tables of our compatriots traditional dishes of the European cookery appeared: omelets, cutlets and sausages .
After war with Napoleon in Russia interest in Russian cuisine flashed. There was a set of new Russian dishes, but for some reason with foreign names: steaks (fr. langette) , cutlets (fr. escalope ), beefsteaks (English beefsteak - a piece of meat). The French influence on Russia was too strong …
In the second half of the 19th century in Russia the dish under the name “beef Stroganoff“ was widely adopted . There are many options of legends and interpretation as this dish took a place of honor in Russian cuisine. Only one that it appeared in a family Stroganov`s column is for certain known.
Since the 19th century salads became popular in Russia . The idea of their preparation was borrowed from France. For last more than hundred years the Russian salads won hearts not only Russians, but also residents of other countries, for example, of vinaigrette (or the Russian salad ). Other popular salad - of “Russian salad“ without which now any feast practically does not do. The author of this salad is the owner of the Moscow tavern “Hermitage“, the native of France Lucian Olivier. Unfortunately, traditional Russian salad salad has nothing in common with the original. Initially “Russian salad“ included the following ingredients: veal language, pressed caviar, hazel grouses, crayfish, pickles and other exotic delicacies. I very much would like to taste original Russian salad salad.
In conclusion about one Russian invention with the import name “Napoleon“ . In 1912 in Russia anniversary of exile of Napoleon from Moscow was celebrated. To this event a number of anniversary foods and drinks appeared. New cake was offered to public: puff, with cream, in the form of a triangle that symbolized a triangular hat of Napoleon. It is natural that cake began to call “Napoleon“. Under it the name it remained still though from triangular became rectangular.
Now it is possible to answer a question of scarcity of Russian cuisine. Practically at all times Russians could prepare various dishes from a limited set of products. Russian cuisine was enriched due to experience of other countries, having given them, in turn, unique dishes and drinks which are very popular around the world now.