The Armenian art in Zamostye.
“to Yes will be known to attendees, both all together, and to everyone here that some of the Armenian people, namely the Reverend Krzysztof Kalust, the priest of this ceremony, and worthy Murat Yakubovich, came to my city from the Turkish earth, and here the trade and crafts were intended to be brought, and before me it you - told [...] That the city founded by me began to prosper rather, merchants and trade of the rich man, I with pleasure decided that they and their descendants were awarded all rights and freedoms which with the consent of Royal Majesty and from my consent were granted to this city. [...] When above-mentioned persons asked about freedom of religion and carrying out church services [...] then, as soon as they will gather on the place which I will appoint for their accommodation, also I will allow to build church where it will be allowed to them to practise the religion [...] “ Privileille Yang Zamoysky`s
, given in Belza on April 30, 1585.
The inspired with warm welcome and privileyam, many Armenians began to arrive to the created city, promoting its blossoming, according to desire of the chancellor Jan Zamoysky. They were settled in North - East side of the area, erecting in the first half of the seventeenth century of the house with arcades along the street following from a town hall on the East. Two centuries of their presence at Zamostye left an indelible mark in cultural and intellectual life of the city where Armenians made considerable part of the population. Even in 1678, during impoverishment and slow migration, them there were about 15% of inhabitants.
Development of the Armenian community provided the mentioned rights and privile. Was of great importance royal privily which granted to Murat Yakubovich an exclusive right on production and sale of morocco and the “Turkish“ carpets in Poland within 20 years.
Such broad monopoly for production and trade in goods, best-selling in the market, shows that here creation of the first in Corona (in the Kingdom Polish was planned. - An editor`s note) productions of mass production, not only for local needs, but also for the purpose of export. However the attempt of development and centralization of this type of craft made in Zamostye was already overdue by then. Deterioration in an economic situation and the crisis caused by monetary devaluation in 1591 and also plague which burst in Zamostye next year became the reason that handicraftsmen began to leave the city. Also change of fashion therefore demand for morocco products decreased played a role. We know about zamoysky morocco only that they did not concede on quality Turkish (hereinafter the word “Turkish“ means “made in the Ottoman Empire“. - Editor`s note) and in comparison with them were definitely the cheapest way.
One more area of art handicraft trade in which Armenians in Zamostye were engaged was rug weaving. According to privileyu the king Stefan Batory the mentioned Murat Yakubovich was the organizer of such production in the city also.
The carpets made of wool and decorated on a border with the coats of arms of the Polish nobility, Tadeush Mankovsky connected with zamoysky production of successors of Murat Yakubovich. This thesis, however, does not find confirmation in sources though it is spoken well by active cultivation of sheep in the territory of a zamoysky ordination and other manors of Jan Zamoysky, and also the right recognized in the country to have a wool warehouse. Inventories of collections of Museum Gallery of Ordination Zamoyskaya in Warsaw do not give the clear answer to a question of preservation of copies of carpets of Zamostya in the ordinatorsky palace. The carpets called in inventories Persian, Turkish and Turkmen in a significant amount were again collected by Stanislav Kostka Zamoysky, and also bought by Mauritsy Zamoysky in 1906 - 1930. In these meetings there were also shlyakhetsky belts of the eighteenth century, including and made on the manufactories created in 1788 - 1789 in Warsaw and Lipkov by Armenian Paskhalis Yakubovich. At an exhibition (the exhibition dated for the international scientific conference in April, 2010 means. - Editor`s note) two belts of this collection which are now in Zamoysky`s funds of the museum are presented.
allowed to receive Cultivation of sheep in industrial scale not only wool, but also raw materials for other fabrics which Murat Yakubovich had to make. We do not know what scale of production of these goods in Zamostye was. Their producers had to be a little. In the seventeenth century they were a part of guild of shoemakers, without having created the community representing their own interests.
The small scale of local production in this area is confirmed by Jan Zamoysky`s document of 1590 exempting from payment of so-called “sztychowego“ (one of types of tax. - Editor`s note) and obligations of display in guild of shoemakers “products Turkish and Italian of morocco, fur, a kordovan“. At the end of the seventeenth century from skin only the furrier Arand Aksentovich was engaged in production of products from Armenians. However we do not know what sort it made production.
Krom of production of morocco, a kordovan and carpets, Armenians were engaged also in an embroidery. We have no information on existence of this craft in Zamostye. Lublin and Lviv were the next cities where it gained development. At the same time in Zamostye the product sample of the Armenian workshops remained. It is the cope (a photo of p. 23) according to the legend belonging to the Armenian church in Zamostye now it is stored in meeting of the city Cathedral museum. It was made of the Turkish fabric of the beginning of the seventeenth century. On fabric from a silk velvet of a nashitaspereda and behind strips the outline embroidered with the repeating motives of sockets with the pomegranate fruits concluded in an akantovy wreath and the imposed crosses having palmettovy branches.
Existence in Zamostye of jeweler craft is confirmed by documentary sources. In 1591 among owners of the landed property two Armenian jewelers are specified: Yaqub and Stanislav. Stanislav Abrakhamovich was a son-in-law of the architect Bernardo Morando and performed works for the zamoysky yard. If to consider the third of the listed handicraftsmen, by the name of Krzysztof, that Armenian Krzysztof who was about 1603 the owner of the house in east part of a market square it is possible to assume that jeweler skill in Zamostye was concentrated on a turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries only in hands of Armenians. Perhaps, the cylindrical reliquary for a border of clothes of Blessed Virgin of Maria from polished rock crystal in a gold frame is connected with the Armenian jeweler workshops. According to Hedgehogs Kovalchika it is indicated by the Mauritian ornament on a leg executed in equipment niyello (in Russian this equipment is called “common people“. - An editor`s note) which was masterfully used by the Armenian jewelers. In the second half of the seventeenth century we meet records about the Armenian jeweler by the name of Yatulovich, however we know nothing of his works. there is no
U us confirmation of existence in Zamostye konvisarsky (konvisary called the handicraftsman who was engaged in casting of objects from tin. - Editor`s note) workshops.
In the first shop (guild) organized in 1590 uniting mechanics and related professions, konvisara were not mentioned. Privilya for this profession was published only in the new charter issued for guild of mechanics after from it in 1619 smiths were allocated. However we do not know, how widely this profession was presented to Zamostye. According to the list of crafts processed by Kazimir Kovalchik on work with metal during 1591 - 1821 two konvisar are mentioned only in 1709 - 1715.
Thus, the small copper which is in Zamoysky`s collection of the museum for cooking of the sixteenth century decorated at edges with a frieze from palmettovy arcades with pronounced Armenian lines needs to be considered after authors of the Krakow catalog as the thing imported perhaps, from Lviv.
Other area of art in which the Armenian artists perfectly proved was a miniature. Here it is the fullest, except for, perhaps, weaving of carpets, east influences found reflection. The illustrated manuscripts were created also in zamoysky skriptoriya.
One of the copyists working in Lviv and Zamostye was Akop from Tokat. We find traces of influence of the Armenian miniatures in a decor of zamoysky wall painting.
In one of houses on North side of the area built in 1632 - 1634 by the Armenian merchant Gabriel Bartoshevich under a polikhromny frieze of the eighteenth century fragments of the ancient frescos created under the influence of the Armenian decorative art escaped. In the southern part of the room of the second floor, in a frieze over the windows divided by a column the fragment of a figure of Christ Pantokrator remained. It was written on the Byzantine sample and surrounded with the thin, fragmentary remained vegetable branch. In the right corner of a window over a column among grapevine elements the artist represented a bird with a long tail (a pheasant?) the cluster (p. 24) pecking probably. The motive of a grapevine and cluster also repeats in a frieze on an entablature (on the western wall the only fragment which is seen from - under the reconstructed baroque list of the eighteenth century remained). Refined drawing of a vegetable branch and other motives reflect a certain influence of art of the Armenian miniature and for certain brushes of the Armenian artist belong. there is no
U us exact information on activity during this period in Zamostye of the Armenian artists. In the middle of the seventeenth century Wojciech Mantukovich whose surname can speak about the Armenian origin was a court artist of Jan Zamoysky of “Sobiepana“. We do not know, however, to what area of art the works performed by it belonged.
The special attention should be paid to a stucco molding which decorates interiors and facades of the Armenian houses. The richness of vegetable, animal and geometrical forms indicates various sources of inspiration. The motives which are skillfully interwoven into the compositions from repertoire of forms of the Italian Renaissance, the Netherlands mannerism and baroque connected to an ornament in east tradition created special style of decoration of a facade. Researchers devoted to architecture of zamoysky buildings a lot of attention. Accenting it first of all on history of separate stages of construction and the spatial decision, they gave much less the place to the analysis of a decor. Therefore it is worth looking narrowly at forms of the ornament decorating the Armenian houses from the point of view of their origin.
the Most extensive and early of the remained options of a decor belongs to already mentioned house of the Armenian merchant Gabriel Bartoshevich. Now the house crowns an attic of purely Renaissance form which contrasts with character of a decor of the facade which kept original details a little. The vertical rhythm of the building is defined by window openings. The stone frames of windows of the second floor decorated at the edges with classical motive Ionic a kimatiya (kimatiya - a dekorirovka of a curved surface of eaves the stylized elements forming a continuous ornamental row. - Editor`s note) are issued by pilasters, fust which it is made slightly narrower from top to bottom and decorated on all surface with an ornament, characteristic of the late Renaissance, in the form of a number of the flat circles acting one of - under another. These stylized pilasters appear on a subwindow frieze of the second floor and repeat also in a socle of an attic in which in the eighteenth century after a superstructure of the next floor window openings were punched. Fields between pilasters have decorative motives of various origin. Spaces under windows decorate the winged heads of angels with freely falling down scarfs suspended on the ends of wings. The heads of angels with the lambrequins suspended on the ends of wings (the decorative drapery of the top part of an aperture in the form of a short horizontal curtain, can have additional decorative elements in the form of brushes, flounces, the cuts rhythmic located, for example, of teeth. - Editor`s note) fill the central part of a nadokonny frieze. Other plaquette with the winged angelic head decorates lateral surfaces of a window opening (plaquettes - small plates with the relief images made of various material. - Editor`s note). The plaquettes of this type cast in wooden forms are one of the most characteristic examples of the decorative forms of the so-called Lublin Renaissance presented, in particular, in works of the zamoysky bricklayer Jan Wolf. The winged heads of angels are not alien also to the Armenian art. We meet them, for example, in decoration of a portal of the oldest Armenian shrine which base is carried to the beginning of the fourth century while the structure was built during the period from the fourth to the seventh century. It is the Cathedral in Echmiadzin, the residence of the Armenian patriarch (actually angels on a belltower of Echmiadzin belong to the 17th century. - Editor`s note) . Zamostya and other decorative motives of a cathedral, especially symmetric refined motive of sockets and a vegetable branch to the flowers similar to hand bells are surprisingly close to an ornamentalistika. The similar ornament added with motive of a grape brush fills panels of a subwindow frieze of the house in Zamostye and trunks of internal interwindow columns. These an antique type of ornament are combined in other decorative parts of a facade with fantastic motives. Among the stylized elements of the vegetation filling fields of an ancient wall of an attic and passing on the ends into gargoyley figures the creeping dragon hid. Corners of walls are decorated by two lions standing on hinder legs. Antique and fantastic subjects are not connected with each other, but act separately just as it is executed in an architectural decor of the Armenian temples. Influence of the Armenian ornament of Echmiadzin on architectural decoration of Zamostya is not casual. There are confirmations of contacts with this cultural and religious center of Armenia. In 1625, during a foundation stone laying ceremony under construction of church, to Zamostye there came the representative of the Armenian patriarch from Echmiadzin, the Catholicos Melchizedek (he was a sopravitel of the Catholicos and by this time had no real power in Echmiadzin any more. - An editor`s note) accompanied by bishops Martin and Eliash. Also trips to Echmiadzin of Armenians of Lviv and Zamostya were frequent. These contacts demonstrate knowledge of forms of the Armenian architecture and its details, about a possibility of their penetration into local architecture.
Character of the rich decorated facade of the house of Bartoshevich and other buildings belonging to Armenians affected decoration of facades of the Polish houses. A fine example of such interrelations is the corner house of North side (The Market square. - Editor`s note) reconstructed by the zamoysky adviser Jan Vilchek in 70 - x years of the seventeenth century. Along with decorative forms in st - a leaf of mannerism and baroque it used also some decorative elements which are present at the Armenian houses.
We find a rich set of the Armenian motives in Bartoshevich`s house. In the neighboring building built between 1632 and 1657, the set of decorative forms is more modest. In decoration of his facade refused vertical partitionings, having entered two continuous decorative friezes. The subwindow frieze consists of motives of geometrical weaving while the frieze consisting of various sequences of symmetrically made vegetable forms, sometimes in combination with geometrical elements and sockets in the form of stars decorates the basis of an ancient wall of an attic. The stylized married couple located in its center draws attention. The figures of the man and the woman placed on pedestals with volutes of Ionic columns on the heads prop up the crowning eaves. The field between these support is filled with a vegetable ornament, similar to an ornament in the lower part of a facade.
Soltan Sakhvelovich`s House built between 1642 - 1657 is decorated with an ornament in style of early baroque. The form of a decor becomes more convex. Ethe lement of an akantovy vegetable branch which are hanging down from the flowerpot located in the center suggest an idea of jewelry of a decorative frieze of a kollegiata of Zamostya. The terminations of leaves decorate the cones reminding the Dutch sinks. This frieze cannot be compared to armyanskimrastitelny weaving as prompts Miroslav Zakrevska - Dubasova because it entirely treats repertoire of new decorative forms of art of that time. The same concerns also the sinks over windows and also covered with leaves of linking of fruit on a mannerist cartouche.
Space of a cartouche decorate also motives of the Armenian origin. These are the compositions entered into the center the Armenian letters in the form of the connected monogram which is followed by Latin initials of a name and a surname of the owner (S S). However the Armenian motives are present here less often. The vegetable branch which is only directly lying on nadokonny eaves which grows from fantastic, turned to each other, heads of birds or dragons, and the “vortex“ sockets framing a frieze under eaves indicate influence of the Armenian ornament. Geometrical sockets belong to constant repertoire of the forms decorating ceiling beams of the Armenian houses. The most decorated and various remained in an interior of the house of Bartoshevich. The alcove of the second floor decorates an original entablature with polikhromiya traces. All beams have the pro-thinned-out edges, and the central beam is issued by three cut-out sockets (p. 30 the top photo). Average of them has a grid of geometrical motives, and lateral - radially located crescent elements making impression of rotation. Spaces on walls between beams fill the panels decorated with motives of onions in the form of “the asinine ridge“. Beams of the first and second floors of back rooms of this house are decorated with sockets in the form of regular six-leaved flower motive in which the space between petals is filled by triangles. These sockets are cut out most often bent (Bartoshevich`s house), and in houses of later period - convex where wooden details belong to 1672 - 1673. Often also the motive of the socket filled with radially located crescent elements which in one case are cut out profoundly (beams in Bartoshevich`s house), in another meets - it is convex, reminding technology of stamping (a detail of the house No. 30). Sometimes there is also jewelry in the form of the simple radial socket and the socket filled with the repeating rhomboidal motives (beams from a collection of the Zamoysky museum). The similar beam is in a collection of the Historical museum in Lviv.
Analyzing the Armenian art in Zamostye, the separate attention should be paid to church which, it agrees cited from privileya the chancellor, it was constructed in 1625 - 1644. This structure was a subject of attentive research Kovalchik, Maciej Pavlitsky, Daniel Prukhnyak`s Hedgehogs. The last from them proved gradual from - the course from the elements characteristic of the Armenian architecture, in favor of local traditions. Prukhnyak carries the roofs covering domes and a tower of zamoysky church, and also decoration of a facade between pilasters to typical elements of this architecture “where the narrow, thin panels fixed by small columns and an archivolt“ are used (an archivolt - a decorative frame of an arch aperture. - Editor`s note) . The author of the quote defines other elements of the building as peculiar features of the Armenian architecture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The remained documentary sources do not allow us to define character of architectural details in and outside of construction. Accurately point schematically noted capitals of narrow mezhduokonny pilasters and a presbytery, a frame of an entrance portal and other details of a facade to their existence. We also have no information on elements of internal finishing which was decorated by the icons located in carved altars. The stock of 1749 prepared on the occasion of visit of a stanislavovsky ofitsial contains some data on internal furniture of the temple (ofitsiat - the authorized representative of the bishop in lawsuits. - Comment perev.) priest Yaqub Mangusevich. In this stock there were mentions of altars and icons. In the main altar there was an image of the Mother of God Blagodatnoy “in a velvet dress and with gilded crowns“. In lateral altars there were Christ Raspyaty`s images, Lord`s Transformations, St. Gregory the Enlightener, St Andrew, St Ann, St. Onufriya and St. Kayetan (p. 33). All church jewelry was sold at auction in 1795.
Two lateral altars and a wonder-working icon of Saint Kayetan was bought by the vicar of a joint church (the church which is not cathedral at which there is a meeting of canons, i.e. joint kapitul so is called, intended also for a prayer of a kollegium of priests. The clergy of a joint church, unlike other priests of this city, differs in existence of honourable privileges. - Editor`s note) the priest Kayetan Derbedroshevich for furniture of Church of St. Catherine under construction in the Lublin suburb.
St. Kayetan`s image was increased in the lower part to enter it in a new altar. After Church of St. Catherine was sorted in 1810, the destiny of an icon remains to the unknown. Remained only the iconographic copy in the form of Jan Masiyevsky`s engraving of the second half of the eighteenth century. What happened to other icons? The icon of the Mother of God Blagodatnoy which was allegedly settling down in the main altar was transferred to Shchebzheshin.
the Armenian origin is attributed also to an image of Madonna and child which is in a lateral altar of the former Franciscan church in Shchebzheshin. Analyzing this work, Pyotr Krasny assumed its Lviv origin what use of equipment of a treatment of light and shade testifies to. The picture is sustained in warm brown colors.
Pieces of internal furniture of the Armenian church which was as Mieczyslaw Pototsky noted “one of the richest, not only by the furniture, but also utensils and expensive church vessels among which, allegedly, remained some brought from Armenia“ were completely disseminated. It is quite probable that the part of objects passed to Catholic churches as it was in a case with the mentioned icons, altars or richly decorated cope kept in a joint church. It happened with assistance of ecclesiastics of the Armenian origin who polonizovatsya, having received the highest ranks in Rimsko - Catholic Church. Among them there was Yaqub Arakelovich, Zachariah Arakelovich`s son from Yazlovts who married in Zamostye the jeweller`s daughter Anna Yatulovich. Belonging to the Armenian nobility, Zakhary repeatedly fulfilled duties of Voight and juror of the Armenian community. Yaqub Arakelovich (died in 1739) was professor of Zamoysky Academy and the Catholic priest. He held the canon`s position in Przemysl and at the end of the life was awarded great honor to be infulaty (so call rimsko - the Catholic priest who received the right to carry during church service an infula - a miter as an award for jealous service. - Editor`s note) to zamoysky. Its meeting possesses two silver reliquaries which are stored in a cathedral of Zamostya: one is intended for a particle of the Tree of the Sacred Cross, another - for a thorn from the Christ`s wreath.
Already mentioned priest Kayetan Derbedroshevich (died in 1828) probably the descendant of the notable Armenian Gabriel Derbedroshevich, was the joint vicar serving a filial church (the church which is a part of this arrival, but not being its main thing, i.e. a parish church. - Editor`s note) Saint Ekaterina. It it began repair of the decaying wooden church in 1772, and then made the significant contribution to construction in 1793 - 1795 of a stone church which was partially decorated with objects from the Armenian church...
the translation with Polish Yulia Galinovskaya.
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