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Aymeric de Peguilian is a troubadour from Provence.

Aymeric de Peguilian (Aimeric de Peguilhan) (about 1175, Toulouse - about 1230) - the court poet at the yards of Spain and Italy. One of the Europe`s first troubadours.

Troubadours - what far and nice concept! Ideas of light romantic love and love are connected with troubadours. They became founders of poetic art in Provencal language. As the first troubadour it is considered to be Gilyom IX, the duke of Aquitaine whose years of life according to the specified data - 1071 - 1127. By this date it is possible to speak safely about the period of poetic works of troubadours, and also about origin of romantic poetry in Europe.

Sources of poetry of troubadours - folklore, its poetic images. Names of many troubadours of Provence are widely known in world poetic culture: Gilyom IX, Bernard de Ventadorn, Serkamon, Dzhaufre Ryudel, Rambaut d Aurenga and many others. All troubadours wrote and sang the songs in a so-called form of “courtois love“ which had much in common with the Sufi ideas of love finding expression in east poetry of the XI-XV centuries. The phenomenon of this Europe`s first lyrics in national language which arose on the verge of the XI-XII centuries at the aristocratic yards of Provence, promptly gained strength and died away to the middle of the III century of the life after it never reached any more gloss which is not surpassed in respect of a poetic form is and still surprising and exerted impact on formation of all subsequent European poetry.

Troubadours were extremely inventive in the field of an art form. In the 12th century they had no systematically stated theory of Provencal poetry yet, but in the songs they often reflected on the poetry nature, a high aspiration of a poet, poetic style, skill. The main - their poetic ingenuity was shown in creative practice. Not without reason the word “troubadours“ comes from trobas (to invent). The main subject, contents and an essence of poetry of troubadours is the love to the Lady, love which it is accepted to call “courtois“.

It is reduced to the fact that the troubadour, usually unmarried, is in love with the Lady usually married and standing in society above it. The lady treats it severely: the most bigger that it occasionally receives, is a smile or a friendly look. The nature subject naturally intertwines with love lyrics at troubadours. However all charm of poetry, and in particular Provencal trubadursky poetry, is that each poet in own way speaks about love, about the moon, about birds...

In songs of troubadours a conditional landscape stops being only a tradition tribute, - it finds air, space, breath of the poet. The lyrics of Provencal troubadours was short-lived: political conditions changed, and not only participants of heretical movements, but also supporters of hedonistic “cheerful science“ of troubadours were subjected to fierce persecution. Besides literary tastes were replaced: in the forefront in the north of France the tale of chivalry began to be put. But troubadours were imitated, at them studied, moved to the new soil, mastered, perhaps, almost all their genres. But first of all and mainly - to a kanson where those innovations which were brought by troubadours in the European poetry were especially visually shown.

The troubadour Aymerik Peguilian was born in Toulouse, in a family of the dealer in cloth. According to the assumption of biographers, his father was a native of Asia, had rather high position in society. It was not only the famous dealer, but also possessed a fine voice and often happened on a visit at the high-ranking families. Is not present in Aymeric`s “biography“ of a name of his father and mother. However it is almost authentically known that Aymeric was very musical and it was trained in singing. In youth, according to one of his biographers, “he fell in love with the neigbour, the wife of the Toulouse citizen, and this love taught him to poetry so he wrote a lot of good kanson“. Having quarreled with the beloved`s husband, the poet applied on duels to him a wound with a sword and was forced to go to exile - where exactly, there are no direct data. the Famous researcher of poetry of troubadours Anatoly Neumann writes

: “Aymeric Peguilian carried out life in wanderings as the court poet, mainly at the yards of Spain and Italy. Aymeric is the magnificent master of a verse having high professional consciousness“ . So the appreciation from the translator and the historian of Provencal poetry A. Neumann eloquently speaks about Aymeric`s place among other troubadours. The author writing under the pseudonym Lys - Ardennes, in the novel “Masters of dreams. History of one troubadour.

It is devoted to all missing on the hill of Lys - Ardennes“ tells about war of Cathars in the south of France and the troubadour Gilyom who was Aymeric`s pupil Peguilian. Gilyom was a son of the owner of an inn and since the childhood dreamed to become the troubadour. Once the troubadour not similar to others came to an inn. He explained that he arrived to Barcelona with the senor baron Pons de la Guardia, Zherona`s possessor, but it is not pleasant to live in palaces to it. The guest asked Gilyom whether troubadours are pleasant to him? “Yes, of course“ - there was an answer. “And I also am the troubadour - Aymeric Peguilian. If you want, I will take you with myself and I will place you in school the Mistletoe where learn to be musicians“. Gilyom`s destiny was predetermined. Master Aymerik Peguilian was known by all troubadours, appreciated in him not only poetic gift, but also a voice, other than all, - melodious, soft and a little sad. Many wanderings were made by Aymeric, he was loved at the yards, appreciated his extraordinary peace temper. Its kansona - the songs devoted to Donna carried some sad print.

In my love - poetry That songs to sing a source,

, the love is more important than knowledge,

- Through love I could comprehend everything,

But expensive price - at the price of suffering
.

The philosopher, the poet, the knight - here Aymeric`s portrait. Motives of its poetry differ from the general trubadursky writing and singing.

Not to count all acts of Love!

the Speech of the fool sense became full,

A in the rascal again honor is given rise,

Angry became kinder - though the Saint declare,

Stingy - is generous, and bastards are not disgusting,

Is modest the arrogant man, shy - swept away carelessly.

Life is only one occupied not by itself,

With life another is together merged.


(Translation of Century. Dynnik)

History of life of Aymeric in the mentioned novel is rather saturated. He was a teacher at school of troubadours. Pupils so respected him that they at any dispute followed to master Aymerik the help. Aymeric Peguilian repeated destiny of many Armenians. In the years of militant inquisition he was taken prisoner and became the hostage. It was found by his former pupil Gilyom who was in a camp of insurgents. Their meeting was so touching that the reader does not doubt: the end of this nice troubadour was it. Here the fragment from the novel describing this meeting. “Faydita (a national militia) won, having paid ten lives for one hundred. The hostages who are beaten off from enemies intended for a fire represented a pathetic and terrible show. Dressed in the impossible tatter exhausted, connected by rough ropes they were restricted on a roadside, almost without understanding anything. There was their person twenty. - Look, Gilyom... here their idea of Christian mercy... - It approached one of such captives who powerlessly fell by the earth. It turned the head on its voice, and the troubadour gasped. When he the last time saw this person, on it bright, cheerful eyes shone, and it smiled, is opened and is clear. Now it was a face of the old man, fatally tired, almost senseless. Gilyom approached the teacher, sat down nearby. - I also did not know that you... - for the first time it did not find words in life. He really did not know about Aymeric`s religion Peguilian and, to tell the truth, it was absolutely indifferent for him; the troubadour knew in him a soulmate, heard singing of the same strings that were tense in his heart. - Do not work, the kind person, - one of hostages started talking. - He more neither will start talking, nor will start singing. They cut off to it language... and fingers on interrogations broke... “Gilyom buried Aymeric Peguilian in the wood, every other day after release, having filled up a grave, laid on it turf layers, sat down to a tree that grew over a grave of the first teacher now, and dozed off“.

Really you are surprised to the people which in the far-away and close countries, in far and close times were always gifted from God. Glory of the troubadour Aymerik Peguilian and memory of it are still live in memory of those who read his verses and sing his wise and melodious kansona.

*

Greta Mirzoyan.

-

MEDIEVAL HISTORICAL SOURCES

of the EAST AND WEST

AYMERIC DE PEGUILLAN

1. The BIOGRAPHY

En Aymerik de Peguilian was from Toulouse, the son of the citizen, the dealer in fabrics. Also he learned a set sirvent and kanson, but executed them very badly. And here, he fell in love with a certain townswoman, the neigbour, and this love taught him to a trubadursky art 2, and he in her honor put a set fine kanson. But the husband of the lady squabbled with it and offended it 3, and en Aymeric revenged it a blow to the head a sword. Because he had to flee Toulouse in exile 4.

And here, it went to Catalonia where Guilyem de Berguedan 5 what was glorified by it in the first song what was put there by 6 accepted it en. And that made him the juggler, having welcomed a horse and a dress and having presented to the king Alphonse Kastilsky 7 who presented it with rich equipment.

Long time there was it in that party, and then went to Lombardy where all graceful public met him with honor big. In Lombardy he also died 8. And here some of it are written kanson as you will hear now.

2. OPTION 9 happened to

I so that the husband of the lady from a wound recovered and went to pilgrimage to Saint Yakov Kompostelsky 10. Aymeric found out that en, and strongly he wanted to visit Toulouse. Also he went to the king and told that if it is necessary for that, he descends to visit the marquis Monferratsky 11. Also the king gave it a permission and supplied with all necessary to the road. Believing that the king him knows history, Aymeric told him that he intends to go through Toulouse, and the fact that his love calls understood, and gave guides to Montpellier 12. He, having told them everything, asked them about the help because he intended to visit the lady under the guise of the patient. Those answered it that they will execute all its orders.

When they arrived to Toulouse, guides where the house of that citizen, and it was specified by it began to ask. There they found the lady that and told that the cousin of the king Kastilsky, going to pilgrimage, was unwell with the road, and sought for it asylum in her house; also she answered that it will be accepted with the appropriate honors. At night Aymeric was en, and companions laid him in a magnificent bed. Next morning en Aymeric called the lady, and that, having hardly entered a bedroom, immediately recognized him and having very marveled, asked how it managed to it to get into Toulouse. He answered that he for the sake of love to it, and told all the history to it. And the lady, having pretended that she pulls on it a cover, kissed him.

What was farther, I do not know, only ten days and ten nights there was en Aymeric there under the guise of the patient then, udalyas from there, came to the marquis what accorded him excellent welcome. [197]

And here you will find creations it:

- The lady, why this torture is so evil 13?

- the Senor, the speech of the madman is not lovely to me.

- the Lady, I ask though about heat drop.

- the Senor, fruitless entreaties are innumerable.

- the Lady, my nemolchna to you praise.

- the Senor, I bear you only the malice.

- the Lady, melancholy of a shower of an izoshl.

- the Senor, and mine but is cheerful.

- The lady, console my last hour

- the Senor, long to wait to you, here for all my narration.

- the Lady, the torch shining to me died away.

- the Senor, it is pleasant to me just.

- the Lady, is fraught with griefs your refusal.

- the Senor, unless is love to order?

- the Lady, me would rescue your uniform look.

- the Senor, should not be hopes at you.

- The lady, I am right not everywhere is deprived.

- the Senor, good luck! Or you wait for obstacles?

- the Lady, love to you to me puts a barrier.

- the Senor, I do not know why to it it.

- the Lady, with me your tone is too sharp.

- the Senor, it for you is also invented.

- the Nobility, the Lady, is irreparable my loss.

- the Senor, for me your speech - the law.

- Amor, led your way to indifference.

- the Friend, having chosen the purpose, I have no right to curtail.

- Amor, the evil will strike you sometime.

- the Friend, to you it is not necessary to be sorry by no means.

- Amor, do not love I the Lady at all.

- the Friend, I would like you with the best to push off.

- Amor, but pain breaks off to me a breast.

- the Friend, I will find how to return losses.

- Amor, leads you to crash your speed. there is no

- the Friend, the reasons so me to abuse.

- Amor, you want to separate us.

- the Friend, is lovelier to live apart, than not to live.

- Amor, I not in forces to replace the Lady.

- the Friend, is necessary to you desires to restrain.

- Amor, I can taste pleasure from now on?

- the Friend, for this purpose it is necessary to wait and serve.
[198]

Comments

1. Aymeric de Peguilian - apprx. 1190 - 1221. Among 50 songs of the troubadour which were skillfully trimmed and perfect in a form, the considerable part is made by debate with the best troubadours, such as Gauselm Faydit. Cf. mentions of it the troubadour Yuc de L`escura (Addition first, IB) and Dante (Addition second, III), and also in Addition of the second, IV, 3.

2. … the love taught him to a trubadursky art... - Cf. XXX, primech. 3.

3. … the husband of the lady squabbled with it and offended it. . - Expression of jealousy from the husband in relation to the troubadour was considered how it is already noted above, extremely not courtois. Cf. LVIII, primech. 3.

4.... Toulouse to flee in exile. - Other explanation of flight in connection with the option given in primech is possible. 8.

5.... Guilyem de Berguedan accepted it en... - See XCIII.

6.... in the first song... etc. - it is unclear about what song of Guilyem there is a speech.

7.... having presented to the king Alphonse Kastilsky... - To T.E. Alphonse VIII Kastilsky (1158 - 1214) sung in three songs of the troubadour.

8. In Lombardy he also died. - One of manuscripts adds:... as speak, the heretic. - The heretic - i.e. Qatar (see LVIII, primech. 47). It is possible that in this case Aymeric was forced to flee Toulouse, escaping from prosecutions.

9. The option - represents continuation of the above-stated text in the only manuscript. The history here given finds some similarity from time to Gauselm Faydit`s songs (to XVIII, 3) and Guilyem Sant` - Leydyera (XLI, 2).

10.... in pilgrimage to Saint Yakov Kompostelsky. - I.e. to the relics of the apostle Yakov stored in the Kompostelsky monastery in Galicia.

11. … marquis Mrnferratsky. - I.e. Guglielmo IV Monferratscy (1207 - 1225) mentioned in one of songs of the troubadour.

12.... to Montpellier... - The way to Italy could pass through this city.

13. The lady, why this torture is so evil? - River - Page 10DZ. - An infrequent example of fictional dialogue in the spirit of Guiraut de Bornel in whom participants exchange remarks from a verse to a verse; after the third stanza dialogue with the lady is replaced by dialogue with Amor.