Rus Articles Journal

“Black Sea Coast. The intersection of civilizations“

the Shorthand report 2 - y Sergey Pavlovich Karpov`s lectures *, aired on Kultura TV channel within the ACADEMIA project - “Black Sea Coast. Intersection of civilizations“, (air on May 18, 2010)

*

Dear friends! At last lecture we spoke about the Italian colonization of Black Sea Coast, about those processes which go to Black Sea Coast, and stopped a little bit on trade problems. And when we spoke about trade and about what goods were brought and taken out from Black Sea Coast, I did not tell that I gave the West. And what goods were brought in exchange for those jewelry, grain, slaves who were brought from the East. And so, precious metals - silver were these goods which brought from the West first of all. Silver was the main equivalent of trade. It was brought or in ingots or as a stamping coin. And in this regard trade of the West with the East was scarce. It was paid with the precious metal extracted in silver mines of Bohemia, Germany and imported through Genoa and Venice. It was one. The second that was taken out on the East, is a cloth. The precious painted cloth which in Byzantium did not make and which were in great demand, both in the territory of Byzantium, and in the territory of the Muslim East. The third goods which were taken out, unexpected. These are bells and the weapon. Bells because in the territory of Byzantium many temples were under construction. And those bells which did in Venice, in Genoa, in other cities, in Lombardy, in Italy, they were of very high quality, with pleasure bought them. And when it was necessary to give a gift to the Byzantine or trapezundsky emperor, sent it a bell. And then hours. Yes, that tower clock which we often see on towers of the Italian and Russian cities. Here that tower clock already from the fourteenth century was also sent to the East.

And weapon! Yes, Italians were able to do such weapon which was not known in the east. Same bolts arbaletny. Same arbalests, powder bombarda. Blades. Many other things. But on these goods there were restrictions. Especially, if they were on sale to those states which could be opponents of Venice or Genoa. Well, for example, to the Egyptian sultan. Or then to the Ottoman sultan. They could not sell such things. Also horses and the ships because they fell here within this scope of strategic goods too were considered as strategic goods. Therefore they were in restriction and sought not to sell them. On the contrary, Venetians, genoeses sometimes bought the small Greek ships. Also used them for local navigation. Navigation on the rivers, across Don, first of all. Sometimes across Dnieper. But all this is cases quite private.

Ya quite recently in archive found one unique document. The document when in Chembalo, modern Balaklava, the ship is bought. At once, as soon as genoeses seized this port. It is bought by the Venetian to do local business. What does the Venetian write home, to the government of the native Republic? He speaks: “I bought the ship, but there are no arms which I can equip and defend this ship. Therefore send me it - that quantity of cuirasses, it is that quantity of helmets and it is that quantity of bolts for arbalests and arbalests that I could protect it“. There is an interesting thing which occurs here. Well, and all - and all - the most important in trade. Trade in slaves was the most important in trade of Black Sea Coast. These are very peculiar goods. Goods which were taken out from the Black Sea in quite large numbers. We can count this quantity on massariya of Kaffy. I already spoke to you about them. According to accounts books.

Every year from the ports of the Black Sea it was taken out approximately from two to three thousand slaves. Perhaps, it is not a lot of. They were taken out in two directions. As a rule, women were taken out to Italy and became house servants. As a rule, men were taken out to mamlyuksky Egypt and became soldiers - Mamelukes. Not necessarily all of them. Some went together with the ships to Italy, and there, in Italy, became house servants too and long time were in these Republics of Italy. And not only in the Italian. They were on sale also in all Europe, them can see gdeva. And here if approximately to compare this number of slaves with what was later at the time of the Ottoman Empire what ratio will be? We will see that at the time of the Ottoman Empire the number of slaves becomes 10 times more. That is, true scales of a slave trade were provided not by Italians, and already Ottoman gain gave to this trade such large-scale, big character. And it is recorded both in Italian, and in some Turkish sources. But we speak about trade of the Middle Ages. About these slaves who were taken out from the Black Sea. here I would like to tell

I that character of a slave trade, slaveholding in the Middle Ages was absolutely another, than that which was in antiquity.

In - the first who became slaves? Yes, slaves could be taken during the Tatar attack on Russian lands or on the Caucasian lands or somewhere still. Yes, slaves could be from sold in enslaving slavery. That is, those who were debtors who could not pay the debt. One more category is less known. But, perhaps, it is very widespread. These are children whom parents sold. First of all, in the Caucasus. Why they did it? Because large families very often could not provide with sufficient livelihood, simply food, food, the children. Especially, when there was a crop failure and hunger. And they preferred to sell the children to Italians, knowing what destiny waits for them. And what waited for them destiny? This is interesting. What did they become in Italy, these people when they arrived here? In - the first, they were not eternal slaves. And after a certain number of years of service they were released. And not just on will and if it was the woman, with a dowry. And this woman obtained citizenship. Roman nationality. That is, not only nationality in the territory of Italy, but also in general the Roman nationality which granted it the right to move across the territory of Western Europe and to use data protection of the republics. That is, it was not eternal slavery. As a rule, those women who got as house servants to Italy served some certain number of years, and then or remained free house servants with the same misters, or could change mister, or marry. And they were endowed at this marriage. Therefore it was other slavery. Sometimes, selling children, thought of their rescue.

However, there was one unpleasant circumstance. Transportation from Black Sea Coast to far Italy. I did not tell how many this travel lasted. And it lasted about one and a half months. From Tana to Venice. Sometimes it is more, sometimes less. Happened differently, depending on weather conditions, from a rhythm of navigation of galleys. But, nevertheless, it is a long way. And, of course, tried to take as much as possible slaves on galleys. And if it is more, then if there was not enough food or epidemic flashed, then all this could kill those people who were onboard this ship. Therefore not all slaves reached to Italy. And it was the heaviest, maybe, the moment in their life. And here, of course, the pursuit of profit led to the fact that bigger, than it was admissible, the number of slaves could be by the ship. However, the sea republics, Venice and Genoa, limited number of the transported slaves by law. But not always these restriction, these restrictions, acted. Because the trade profit was too big. I once again repeat that there could be a difference in the price between the slave bought in Black Sea Coast and the slave sold in Italy approximately ten times.

I told specially about this type of goods for one reason. Because the indicator of a slave trade allows us to get into political circumstances of fight throughout centuries in Northern Black Sea Coast. About what the speech? The speech about ethnic structure of slaves. If before crisis which we together considered most of slaves, about eighty percent, were Tatars or Mongol - Tatars. Well, by the way, Italians distinguished ethnically and somatic Mongols and Tatars. And directly wrote in the acts: this is the yellow with high cheek-bones slave - the Mongol. Or: “it is the Tatar“. They designated it and distinguished. Mongols were more expensive. They most often belonged to elite and were more rare in category of slaves. Them was not so much. Therefore we can see approximately according to these indirect data a ratio of Mongols and Tatars in the territory of the Golden Horde. It is the interesting indicator too, it is possible to speak about it specially. But except Mongols and Tatars what still slaves were? Slaves were the Caucasian origin most often. Them was much. These are manholes, these are Mingrelians, these are zikh, Adyghe, and many others which got to slavery. And among them there were Russian slaves. But the number of the Russian slaves till eightieth years of the fourteenth century was much less, than the number of slaves Tatar or the Caucasian origin. Of course, exotic slaves occasionally got. For example, in one of notarial acts I met the slave - the Chinese. Absolutely big exotic. Or the slave could be, say, the Bulgarian or the Greek. Or Jew. Such cases were too. But a little. These are isolated cases. They even not percent, but separate cases. The majority was Tatars.

A here 1380. And the situation changes. Instead of seven - eight percent of the Russian slaves - thirty - forty. At once, quickly. It demands the explanation why it occurs. How? Why the ethnos of those slaves who are brought from coast of the Black Sea to Italy changes? Why there are more slaves Slavic? And here it is necessary to remember what occurs in the Golden Horde at this time. You remember that zamyatnyu? Here that zamyatnya when Berdibek in 1359 dies. When in 1360 bloody revolution of Nowruz. And during this bloody revolution the baptized Tatar tsarevitch who could become the khan of the Golden Horde perishes. After Nowruz twenty khans change for the same approximately number of years. And who governs? Not the khan, and a temnik of Mamay who puts these khans at discretion rules, without belonging to a sort Dzhuchidov, and without having the right for a hansky title. He governs on behalf of these false khans. But in the Horde turmoil, fight a constant which will lead then to defeat of Mamaya finally Tokhtamyshy. There now, for now is no this defeat yet. What turns out? The Tatar horde is weakened at this time. The illegal governor governs. Russia gathers under Dmitry Donskoy`s banners and leaves in the field of Kulikovo. At first was battles some more, but 1380. Huge victory. Victory not only military forces, and victory moral. The victory is ideological which instilled confidence that it is possible to dump this yoke. And Dmitry Donskoy made huge business, having stirred different principalities to action against a yoke. He won. But after this victory over Mamayem, in two years, in 1382 Moscow will be burned and devastated by troops of the new conqueror Tokhtamysh. And after this fight which had to designate a change there will be a destabilization in the relations between the Horde and the Russian principalities. Till this time it was very heavy, but all - the Russian princes tried to build more or less peace relations with the Tatar khans, paying a heavy tax. You remember what was done by Ivan Kalita. I will not tell about it. You too well know it. Extremely heavy tax gathered. It actually could exsanguinate this or that principality, this or that territory. But this tax provided a certain stability. On condition of its payment. The Russian princes went to the Horde, and there took the oath to this or that khan that they are his vassals. The Tatar attacks were not made so spontaneously and randomly on the territory of Russia. And here after 1382 these extortionate attacks became constants. Because Tatar emirs did not submit to that khan who ruled the Golden Horde, felt independent. And repeatedly also other principalities attacked on Ryazan, Moscow, Tver. Also took away from there it is full. The relations were not stable. And numerous attacks of Tatars became reality of the Russian life of that time. Reality very heavy, bloody. And when it was stopped? It was stopped slowly and gradually at Ivan the Third and his descendants, successors. Only then through system of fortresses which were built on borders through strengthenings, through the Cossacks it was possible to stop these continuous extortionate attacks. And that not completely. You remember that at Ivan the Terrible there was a campaign almost to Moscow Tatar. Campaign of the Crimean Horde already. That is, I want to tell that through sources Italian, Genoa, Venetian, through slave trade statistics, we in the reflected look see what happened to Russia. And that price which was paid by the Russian principalities for the Kulikovsky victory. It was the terrible price of blood. Of blood of the Russian people taken in it is full. Of course, then, gradually, the system of defense will be arranged. But long time we will be defenseless. Defenseless before attacks not only Tatars, but also Lithuania, and other states which sold to Italians taken is full. And here therefore when we watch at pictures of the Italian artists of the fifteenth century, for example, Pizanello, we often very much see faces not Italian there. And broad faces of Tatars or Mongols. Persons are Slavic, blondes who are there and are drawn in pictures of the Italian artists of the fifteenth century. It shows really what there was. How many there was this population. It was much. Here you see how on these sources it is possible to draw an unexpected conclusion on the real situation occurring at this time.

Other interesting conclusion which can be made on these sources. I already tell you about our work. About what can be taken from these sources. It about the Russian population. The Russian population in Priazovye and in general in Northern Black Sea Coast. When it comes there? Yes, we know about the Tmutarakansky principality. And about what role is played by the Tmutarakansky principality at the time of Kievan Rus` and a little bit later. And after that that happens to the Russian population? It as if departs under the pressure of at first kipchak, and then Tatars, on the North. And we think that it departs. And here if we read the notarial acts which are drawn up in Tana, we will see that the situation not absolutely so is. And here I meet such curious documents. The consul of Tana buys brushwood to heat the room the. And winters were then more severe, than now. Snow fell, often there filled up territories of trading stations. And it needed to be cleared away. Cold weather was more. Don froze. Also the ships could not enter since November somewhere till February the mouth of Don. It was, is valid, climatic caused. Well, here, also bought brushwood to heat houses. And it, this brushwood, cost much. For it fight between certain settlers Venetian with each other went straight. And the consul tried to buy himself something too. But question: from whom they bought this brushwood? They bought it from the Russian merchants who brought it here, alloyed on the river. And they are called on names. We see names: Fedor. It and is written: Fedor. Not Theodor - Italian, and Fedor - as is in Russian written. Italians both hear, and write. Kozma. Kuna. Such strange name. Mina, his father. These people who there just are registered in sources. They have wives. These wives can be Italians, and can be also Russians. They too there are designated, in these sources. And I found the certificate on orthodox Russian parish in the city of Tana there. This arrival was not purely Russian ethnically. He was an Orthodox Christian. Greek and Russian together. And that priest who served in this arrival depended on the metropolitan of Alania. Yes, on a title it was the metropolitan of Alania Caucasian. But actually this metropolitan lived at that time already in Trebizond. And here from Tana there are reports to it a metropolitanatethat about what is done there by orthodox priests. And the metropolitan interposes in this matter, of course, not disinterestedly, wishing to receive the share from profitable trade in Tana. And so on. But, nevertheless, it is here the interesting fact. That is the Russian population is present there much earlier, than we think. Both this population yet not kazachesky and not slavish. Yes, there were Russian slaves. I spoke about it. But except slaves there were handicraftsmen. Also there were merchants. And handicraftsmen too. And these facts are confirmed by finds of craft workshops. Masterful bone carvers, for example. Several such workshops were found in Azov. They are very interesting. It were products not for export, and for local consumption. And on some of them, in some places where these things were found, for example, there are Russian crosses, engolpions. And other things of use which are traditional for Russia.

I we face one, very interesting phenomenon. With the advent of the Cossacks, with the term the Cossacks.

What it designates? Here if we read massariya of Kaffy, then we very often there will see the word “Cossack“. And we begin to look: and who such, these Cossacks? The word “Cossack“ and is written - “Cossack“ as we say now. And then we see lists of these people. And how many each of them is paid by the consul. He pays their work. And here, when we look at these data, we see that names - that, generally Armenian. It is a lot of Armenian names there, among these Cossacks.
But there do not have Slavic names or it is not enough of them. Who were these Cossacks, actually, who were in Kaff and in other cities? They were hired irregular horse groups which were used by the kaffinsky authorities for defense of the city and what they named the Genoa Gazariya. And Gazariya, from Khazaria, called possession which belonged to genoeses in the territory of the southern coast of the Crimea. They used the old term. Here once there was Khazaria. And now they as if from a historical prapamyata begin to speak about Gazariya. Gazariya Genoa. This Genoa Gazariya defended with these groups of Cossacks. Therefore they were not Cossacks on an ethnic prinadlezhnostiya on structure, on the organization of this army. They just by name were Cossacks. And then the name already passed it and was used also for those Cossacks whom we well know on Don and in Zaporizhia Sechi. It is already other history.

And so, here we have very interesting data on the Russian population, and on other population which was in the territory of the Crimea, for example.

Here that occurs in the Crimea. It is very curious thing too. We know that, for example, at the beginning of the thirteenth century, in the city the Pike perch, there was a considerable Russian population. The Russian Ryazan prince, it is reflected in sources Arab that time, Persian, at Ibn - Bibi, for example, came to the rescue of the Pike perch when it was attacked by seldzhuk, crossing through the sea. We have such data from the beginning of the thirteenth century. And further what occurred there? There is same Kaffa. Italians came here. Whom did they meet there? Generally Kaffa was the city Greek. And the population which was there it was the Greek population. Because the southern coast of the Crimea was a part of the Byzantine empire. Except Greeks there lived some number of Slavs of Orthodox Christians and other ethnic groups of the population. But Greeks dominated. And we can track it according to massary Kaffy where there are a lot of certificates on ethnic structure of the population. And here, since the middle of the 14th century, after crisis, there is a change. More and more population Armenian arrives to the Crimea. Why? Because under blows Tatar - Mongols, and then those emirates which arise in Anatoly from the territory of Great Armenia the Armenian population is expelled. Many cities where Armenians dominated are crushed. They run to the coast of the Black Sea, the southern Black Sea Coast, are transported to the Crimea where they can receive some protection. They settle in Kaff. They settle in other cities of the Crimea, but, first of all, in Kaff. And Kaffa becomes the center where in the middle of the fifteenth century of Armenians the majority. There is a lot of them. They build the monasteries there. There are skriptoriya where books are rewritten. There miniatures very interesting Armenian are created. And the Armenian population lives under this Latin guardianship. Guardianship Catholic, headed by the Catholic bishop who in Kaff plays very significant role. But they are built in this system, and the population there it is considerable and influential. And how, in general, Italians build the system of the relations with local population? It too question very interesting. They, first of all, demand that those religious festivals which are established by Catholic Church were executed in the territory of the city. But they try to interfere with internal affairs of some other faith not really. They allow both orthodox Church, and the Armenian Church to have the temples, to send there the occasional offices. And in this case the local population can keep the traditional values, the cultural reference points. It was feature too. Of course, if the person wished to make some career in this trading station, or to promote somehow on an office ladder, he most often adopted Catholicism. Though, all Supreme posts in any trading station, Venetian or Genoa, belonged to a nobilitet. To Nobilitet to Italian which representatives came together with settlers. Sometimes here long time lived, sometimes came and left. But it were filled, representatives of patrician childbirth. And here I would like to tell about one thing absolutely almost unknown still. And very surprising. Surprising even from the point of view of outlook and those principles which were underlain in a basis of Christian belief.

Who arrived to trading stations? There is a simple question. There arrived young men. Without families. They were not married. They were full of spirit of business. They wanted to make the capitals here. They were junior representatives of the families. The father or the uncle sits in Venice or in Genoa. And the nephew or the son goes here to execute his will, his assignment, its commercial instructions. He receives the special document on it. And according to this document he does business. And here, he comes and here lives several years without family. And what it then does? He could take up with slaves or with local residents. And it is rather widespread. But there is one more curious thing. Marriage under the contract. Settlers - Italians conclude with local residents, as a rule, Greek women, marriage under the contract for a certain term. For the term of their stay. I found several such contracts. It is written: “You will be my wife, for me will look after, lay my bed, to cook to me food within two years. And I give you a roof, livelihood and some sums of money for your contents. After that I leave. If we give birth to the boy, I will take away him with myself. It will be part of my surname. If the girl, let she with you remains. And you will bring up it and to watch it. Well, maybe, if it very much is pleasant to me, I with myself will take away it, and I will enter into the new family“. There is such fact. The fact is unknown. And how such wife under the contract was called? She was called a godmother. Godmother. With the present godmother it has nothing in common. But the term here such was used. The interesting fact which we find in the Crimea. And it is quite unusual.

Toleration was. Contacts with local population were. The local population joined in the lowest administration. It did not reach high posts, but the lowest administration was in hands of those people who as if supervised quarters Greek, Armenian, Slavic and others. All high-ranking officials were Italians. Naturally. Also it turned out that it was much more Italians, than we thought earlier. Their number increased. To thirty percent of the population in Kaff or Soldaye there was the Italian, Genoa population, or in Tana the Venetian population. In Tana there were two trading stations as you know, Venetian and Genoa. And this population not only sat in place. It preferred to make trade trips. Here 1395, year of war between Tokhtamysh and Timur, the new powerful conqueror who will come here will reach Yelets and will turn back then. And here, of course, very difficult military situation. And at this time the Genoa merchant or Venetian makes the trade contract in Hadzhitarkhana. War by war, and commerce by commerce. It proceeds, despite this war, despite very hard times. Trade continues because it is very profitable. Ina the North she was focused too. I did not tell about what was brought from the North, from Russian lands. But you can guess that. Furs which were the same gold, as well as precious metals. Sable or squirrel even. It were those goods which are very often fixed in notarial acts. They were brought in a large number. And, for example, in the act we read about sale of the fur coat made of backs or of a paunch of a squirrel. They were sewed together, these backs, and such fur coat became. Both it was on sale, and it cost quite much. Well, I do not speak about an ermine and any more about a sable which, of course, were appreciated and even coins were an equivalent. Here, if it was necessary to pay for some big transaction how you think, than paid? How, than left pledge? Most often pearls. The pearls were just not only a jewelry, but also quality currency. For which it was possible to buy some things expensive very much. Trade with Russia was not only furs. Hemp, the wood as I already spoke was imported.

the Wood was very much appreciated. It cost much. Also brought the whole logs of the wood to Tana, for example, in order that they were used in construction or for some other purposes. It, of course, was important. Also other goods made in Russia were taken out. For example, honey. And we can list a number of simple agricultural products. But, in any case, this trade were it is regular. And trade with Russia assumes the increasing and big scale. And to the fifteenth century the tovaropotok not only from the East, but also from the North accrues. From Russian lands. It concentrates in Tana and in Kaff as I already spoke, two main centers of trade. And I would like to tell that this trade is based on a financial system very thought over and progressive for those times still here. There is a question: what Italians to this area, except goods brought? They brought extensive trade experience.

was created Already by then system of double-entry bookkeeping on which office-work was conducted. Already then the bill was invented. Also transported not necessarily gold and silver, and transported just a piece of paper on which the right of receiving money which was invested in one place, in other place was specified. By this time the pawnshop, mortgage, translated operations with an exchange of one currency on another was already known. All these commercial vehicles were widely used in Black Sea Coast, in different Italian trading stations. I already told you that Italians brought those goods which, in principle, were not known. As tower clock. And here, gradually, gradually, in this territory, in the territory of all Black Sea Coast, it is created syncretic culture and art. What does syncretic style mean? Here, give we now we will look at some objects. Here one of these objects which now I will show you. The dish made by request of the local person, the masters working in Black Sea Coast in the western technology. But there very many plots east are represented. Or, here, for example, on this sink. In the center you see the image of the innocent person. And above typical east ornament. And here, a subject which is created by the Italian handicraftsmen, by request of the Muslim merchant, sold through the Armenian mediation, to tastes of local population which lives there, in the western equipment. Merge of styles which in this area happens at this time. Also the syncretic culture is created. With mutual penetration of different cultural elements. And it, really, is very interesting and unexpected thing. This culture could yield very unexpected results and masterpieces even. If its development was not interrupted in the middle of the fifteenth century with an Ottoman gain. The Italian trading stations were destroyed. Italians continued to trade sporadic from time to time with these areas. But after 1453, and especially after 1475 when Ottomans take the Crimean trading stations, Kaffu, first of all, both Tana, and other trading stations already an opportunity for this development was not. And here other culture takes roots already. The culture connected with the Ottoman world. And the Turkish curves, the Turkish samples become dominating, in this area. And before, during this period, in which we are engaged, we can observe this picture. It is an engraving which was made in the nineteenth century, but on real sources, on real sketches which then were at the disposal of the artist. This engraving is called “The letter from Trebizond“. The letter which was received from Black Sea Coast and which generates such keen interest of participants. Perhaps, this evidence of attack on a trading station from trapezundsky Greeks. Perhaps, it is some special data on very profitable operation, on arrival of a caravan. Perhaps, still something. Here they vividly discuss it. Discuss very actively, wishing to participate in this trade operation or, in any case, receive some data for them essential. And in these far trade trading stations, of course, it was necessary to think of defense. And I would like to show you one archaeological source very interesting again. It is a gun, a powder bombarda, perhaps. But gun option which was absolutely incidentally found in Azov and is brought to the Azov museum. Has to tell that the Azov museum carries out very active, good works, archeological excavations in the territory of everything, all this area. There is a good group of archeologists. Here found such, for example, gun. It shows how Venetians and genoeses in this territory from numerous attacks defended. And attacks were, of course, different. Active armed forces of some great governor could come, for example. What was, for example, the khan Tatar which completely destroyed Tana in 1343. Timur who burned Tana in 1395 was same. But except Timur and Dzhanibek still there were many small attacks to Tana. Practically at the end of the fourteenth century it is possible to count, well, at least, five large attacks on the territory Podonya. These attacks were not authorized. Sometimes they came to an end with success, sometimes not. Differently happened. But Tana was often plundered, destroyed. Then it built up again. Survivability of Tana just blows the mind. It is just robbed, just destroyed in 1412. And in 1414 here already all on the place, trade operations continue. And data on scales of robberies in itself are eloquent. Here, for example, 1343. First large destruction of Tana. And how you think what figures of losses at Italians? Three hundred fifty thousand ducats, gold coins. The most enormous sum. Then, as a result of different robberies, there can be twelve thousand, fourteen thousand, thirty five, two hundred thousand. These figures in itself speak about scale of trade. About those considerable capitals which were here, in these far trading stations. And when we say about the ideological party of business, about what here was, in the territory of these trading stations, we can look at very interesting coin. It is a coin - aspr Kaffy. Aspr - a silver, small coin which was in the course, on which purchases on the place were made. These aspra then accumulated in bars of silver which were called som. Well, here, aspr Kaffy. What we on it see? You see the image of city gate. It kastello to a dzhenoveza, the Genoa lock which was there. Image of a symbol of the power Genoa. And on other party of the same coin we see the Tatar tamga - a symbol of the power of the zolotoordynsky khan. These are coins - bilinguals. On one party - a Latin inscription. On another - the stylized inscription the Arab font made. Here, as a matter of fact, key to understanding. Double citizenship. Citizenship and acceptance of the power of the mother country and recognition of the power of the Golden Horde. This power of the Golden Horde, and then the Crimean khanate, weakens more and more. And, at last, already to the middle of the fifteenth century the Genoa trading stations, especially Kaffa, become more and more independent. Their consuls acquire more and more rights and advantages including in relation to local population. And here one more fact of contacts with local population.

I show you now documents which we study. Here one of such documents. This will. The will which was written Venetian notariy by Pietro Pellacan, in Tana, in 1448. All text Latin, except the signature. If we look at the lower part of this document, here, we will see the signature. This signature of the Greek witnesses. Kostatis Votsistaa signs the document as the witness of the Latin act. Such acts to the fifteenth century in Tana were not. And it is even difficult to imagine. That is the local Greek population of Tana was included in system of office-work. Also its right to become citizens of the sea republics and to participate in drawing up trade documents in this territory admitted. But in Trebizond it was a little bit more difficult. Here you see a trapezundsky coin. It is not similar to the Tatar at all. There was a sovereignty of the Greek emperor from a sort Great Komninov. Here we see the image, on the one hand, of Saint Evgeny, the patron of the city of Trebizond. And on the other hand - the image of the emperor with a scepter, and an inscription: “Manuil Komnin“. Completely it does not get to a stamp. But, nevertheless, you see the image of the emperor here. It was very widespread coin which went not only throughout centuries in the Trapezundsky empire, but also in Georgia. And there it was called kirmaneul. Why kirmaneul? Because Manuil, the trapezundsky emperor is represented. The Western Georgia began to mint imitation of this coin. That is, in monetary circulation in the Caucasus this coin plays a large role too. By the way, has to tell that in the territory of the Trapezundsky empire the large role is played by the lazsky population. Population of kartvelsky group. Manholes were very good soldiers helping with defense of the Trapezundsky empire. Especially in defense of its southern boundaries against Turkic attacks.

I want to show one more document to you. It is the document which reflects stay of Mamaya, and embassies of Mamaya in Kaff. We know that the Tatar khan Mamay terminated the life in Kaff or, perhaps, was given by kaffinets Tokhtamysha. And here document of 1374. Embassy to Mamayu which is fixed here. And numerous trips of the Russian metropolitans through Kaffa are reflected in these accounts books too. The last about what I want to tell, dispel one legend. Often in the Russian chronicles we read that we participated in the Battle of Kulikovo of a fryaga on the party of Tatars. Has to tell with all responsibility that it is a legend. Because all expenses on a parcel even of one person are reflected in massariya of Kaffy anywhere. There is no article of an expense on a parcel of army to Tatars. The Tatar troops did not battle together with Venetians and genoeses in the field Kulikovom. Perhaps, on it I will finish. you see

here as we can reconstruct thanks to these sources a political situation in the region. But I would like to tell about one. It is important, this work should be continued. Before you iceberg top. Only top. And we, of course, have to work systematically in archives of Venice, Genoa there to find new finds. And for this purpose we try to create the centers of the Russian Historical institute in Constantinople (Istanbul), in Venice, in Jerusalem. It is a task which can be solved with the state support and with private support. If we have places of training and serious scientific centers in these regions, we can get unique certificates. Our collective efforts are for this purpose necessary. Thanks.

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* Karpov Sergey Pavlovich (on January 1, 1948, Stavropol) is the historian, the dean of department of history of MSU. Doctor of historical sciences, professor, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. Head of the department of history of the Middle Ages of department of history. Research supervisor of laboratory of history of Byzantium and Black Sea Coast of MSU.