Rus Articles Journal

What did the Homo sapiens eat?

About one million years ago on Earth the first ancient person appeared. By the sweat of the brow it got the food: at first collected edible plants, fruits and korenye, then began to include animal food in the diet. Fight for a survival in severe conditions left a mark on nature of food of our ancestors and led to morphological and physiological changes of their organism.

The homo sapiens ( of Homo sapiens ) lived approximately in at one time with Neanderthal men. For the unknown reasons the last look died out, and the Homo sapiens began victorious procession along the planet, developing new spheres of dwelling and winning new continents.

35 thousand years ago in Europe the new people very close to the modern person - appeared Kromanyontsa`s . They cannot be considered as ancestors of all modern people. Kromanyontsa - one of many groups Homo sapiens living on Earth during an era of the last freezing.

Their stone tools were much better, than at Neanderthal men. New people were able to produce tips of copies, daggers, needles from a bone. Later they designed onions and arrows. Kromanyontsa built the housing allowing them to take cover from bad weather. They for the first time tamed wolves from whom then there were domestic dogs. The first rock paintings were also executed by these people.

Kromanyontsa were magnificent hunters and passed on the experience from generation to generation. They used a spear, darts, arrows and stone throwing disks. In hunting they were very inventive, using for production capture the deep disguised holes and shelters in narrow gorges. Often put on themselves skins closer to approach herd of animals. Hunting for large animals was collective. Kromanyontsa for the first time invented a harpoon and with its help began to get fish. They also successfully caught birds in a drag-net, thought up difficult deadly traps for predators. Using receptions and tools of hunting, kromanyonets had an opportunity to get highly nourishing animal food and considerably expanded the diet . It, obviously, promoted a successful survival and reproduction of a look and helped them to occupy even the severe cold Areas of Siberia.

Kromanyonets did not disdain to collect edible plants, korenye, fruits, berries. Usually women and children were engaged in it. The part of vegetable production prepared on fire. Cooking and a browning of vegetable products increased their nutritional value, helped to split and soften cellulose, inedible for the person. Tubers of many plants were poisonous, but heat treatment deleted from them dangerous toxins. People in practice studied as it is necessary to survive in severe conditions, saved up the got experience and trained the younger generation.

Scientists made reconstruction of a diet of kromanyonets. It turned out that the vegetable and animal food was consumed by people in the ratio two to one. the organism received Proteins and fats from an animal component of food (mammals, fish, birds, insects). But, despite abundance of potential food, the person was limited by natural resources. By calculations of experts of 1 of the earth could support no more than 60 people. Growth of the population happened in an arithmetic progression, and natural resources decreased in geometrical.

However among scientists there is no consensus concerning a diet of the primitive Homo sapiens as nature of food is in many respects caused by climate and geographical features of rayonovy accommodation. In some regions with rather severe conditions thousands years ago people ate quite poorly, mainly vegetable food and is only rare - after successful hunting - ate meat.

About 10 thousand years ago warming of climate in Europe began, and it was the good prerequisite for emergence of agriculture . This event can be considered as the revolutionary step promoting evolution of the Homo sapiens. Development of agriculture allowed to support approximately in 100 times more people on unit of area. Population began to increase soon. Contacts between tribes amplified: there was an intensive exchange of various products, rates of distribution of innovations and experience increased.

But distribution of agriculture had also the back. Most of the population passed to carbohydrate food. Transition to a diet with prevalence of grain crops led to violation of food balance. It promoted to emergence of problems with teeth . Caries became a mass disease of the population, and the frequency of loss of teeth at adults increased. The lack of proteinaceous food was the cause of avitaminosis , the human body lacked also iron, at many anemia developed . Child mortality increased.

Thus, agriculture, on the one hand, allowed to solve a problem of a survival and expansion of an area of mankind, but on the other hand, people paid for it with the health.

The homo sapiens, improving hunting tools, learned to get animal food quite regularly, the vegetable component made also considerable share in its diet. Agriculture generally resolved an issue with food of violently increasing population, but the monodiet became the reason of avitaminosis and diseases of people.