How the diet of our far ancestors changed?
Every morning at us begins approximately equally: we go to the refrigerator, we take a glance of regiments with one thought that fast to eat it for breakfast. In the evening the scenario repeats with only that difference that we have already supper, ahead free evening. We go on the path blazed to the refrigerator searching again, than tasty to indulge itself lyubimenky. We sit down on a sofa: as a hobby - the TV, for a body - a bottle of beer and chips.
However, at everyone the choice. But so was not always.
Today I invite you to make excursion to our far ancestors and to look how they got “a piece of food essential“ in age-old times …
the American scientists opened a new method for research of enamel of the hardened teeth of ancestors of the person. This technology allows to define a range of their food. Applying radioactive carbon, scientists established that the highest primacies (parantropa) which fossil remains were found in Africa had seasonal food. Their diet included fruit and leaves of forest and savanna plants in one season, in another they used tubers, cereals, seeds and roots of plants as food. what everything began
Research of food of ancestors of the person allowed to elicit the following fact: during 50 million years our far ancestors ate approximately equally. In the beginning the most part of their diet was made by escapes, leaves, fruit, seeds, bark, roots, i.e. they were practically vegetarians . Further the highest primacies began to add animal food to the diet, they consumed insects, frogs, did not disdain to clear nests of birds and to regale on eggs. Seasonality in food was also characteristic of them. During a vegetative season they used fruit and seeds, leaves and escapes. During a winter season were content with eating of insects, tubers of plants and bark of trees. Thus, the first step to to the mixed food was taken .
Such type of food led to development in primacies of the powerful zubochelyustny device and became the reason of reorganization of their gastrointestinal tract. In what it was expressed? Many ancient vertebrate animals including the highest primacies, could synthesize vitamin C . However life of animals in paradise rainforests with the food rich with ascorbic acid, had a consequence that their organism gradually stopped synthesis of this vitamin. Intake of ascorbic acid together with food was energetically more favorable to an organism of primacies. The released energy was used on increase in physical activity and development of a brain. These evolutionary transformations happened to our far ancestors during 20-25 million years.
During the subsequent period on Earth there were several global cold snaps. The area of rainforests was strongly reduced. Ancient ancestors of the person, at first of a driopiteka (the sort Dryopithecus ), and then Australopithecuses (the sort Australopithecus ) continued to live on extensive open spaces of savannas. The new way of life left a mark on their food. They ate generally vegetable food during very short rainy season. Australopithecuses began to use sticks for excavation korenyev and tubers. And during the drought continuing 10 months they had to hunt small animals or eat drop, i.e. in their diet the food of an animal origin prevailed.
As changed food with the advent of the first people
About 1 million years ago during long evolutionary process there was a first person belonging to the sort Homo . It was of People skillful ( of Homo habilis ). It already went directly, did the elementary instruments of labor of stones, built for itself(himself) primitive dwellings. The person skillful ate both vegetable, and animal food. Incidentally used fire for frying of meat of the killed of animals.
Following in an evolutionary chain was of People orthograde ( of Homo erectus ), appeared on the planet Bol 500 thousand years ago. This look hominid (this . Humanoid ) fire for various needs learned to use:
• the meat roasted on fire was more tasty than crude production;
• smoking and a browning allowed to keep products longer;
• in a cold season fire was used for heating of all members of the tribe;
• frightened off fire predators;
• fire was applied to roasting of tools of hunting - they became stronger and served longer.
The food cooked on fire was easier to be chewed, and it was better acquired. Change of nature of food was reflected in appearance of the person. during evolution teeth a hominid began to decrease, the lower jaw became less massive and ceased to be given forward. The human face already reminded our contemporary. It is necessary to add that members of the tribe of the Person orthograde could communicate among themselves, using the primitive speech.
The following closest relative of the person - the Neanderthal man ( of Homo neanderthalensis ). It appeared on Earth about 150 thousand years ago. These people lived during an era of an intensive cold snap. They had a powerful constitution, the person was decorated by a large nose that was adaptation to a frigid climate: the inhaled cold air managed to get warm, passing through long nasal channels. There lived Neanderthal men in caves, skins of the killed of animals used as clothes. For communication used the articulate speech. In tribes there was a cult (something like primitive religion). The died tribespeople were buried.
In the conditions of very frigid climate Neanderthal men got to themselves livelihood generally of collective hunting . For this purpose they used a spear. As objects for hunting served various animals, for example, bisons, cave bears. Hunting for gregarious animals was carried out by a zagonny way: often hunters drove animals into a bog or on a steep where finished. Life in severe conditions demanded big power expenses from an organism of ancient people. During this period the prevailing food form they had an animal food. Hunting not always was successful therefore in life of Neanderthal men there were periods of long hunger. Then they began to eat the tribespeople, i.e. it also the cannibalism was not alien to .
So, initially in a diet of the highest primacies vegetable food prevailed. Over time, along with vegetable, they began to eat animal food. The ratio of vegetable and animal components in food of ancient people varied depending on climate and conditions of their existence. Change of nature of food led a hominid to morphological and physiological reorganizations of an organism.
As the Homo sapiens improved the diet, it will be a question in the following article.