Tick: who such is what is, whom and why bites?
are well familiar to All forest pincers which sometimes so strongly annoy fans of forest walks and their pets.
It is arthropods animal of a class arachnoid. Differ from spiders well familiar to us in the fact that at pincers golovogrud and a paunch, at spiders divided by thin “waist“, are completely merged and form a meshkoobrazny body.
Pincers are widespread on all our planet. They meet everywhere - from the most droughty areas to glaciers. The quantity of their types reaches 40 000. The sizes of their body vary from 0,1 to 30 mm (a female, nasosavshayasya blood), but the majority them everything about 1 mm long.
Among them is both svobodnozhivushchy, and kommensala (“parasites“), and parasites (for example, so-called scabby zuden, parasitizing in hypodermic cellulose of mammals including the person).
About 4 000 species of ticks passed to life in water, and from them 1 100 - into the sea. There are among them such exotic representatives as cheese pincers. Infect with them curds, delicious and very expensive cheese which is adored by experts and fans of cheese as a result turns out.
But it is more important than all these various semi-parasitic, parasitic and blood-sicking arthropods for inhabitants of the Kaliningrad region so-called ixodic pincers.
Their of everything about 800 types. Most interesting a tick Iksodes ritsinus (Ixodes ricinus), living in our woods. And let these woods make less one fifth area of the Kaliningrad region, the tick manages to annoy its inhabitants seriously. Its shape is familiar to very much.
This tick korichnevato - gray color. The forward department, or a gnatosoma which merged with a paunch, is noticeable only by the seam dividing them. The tick as if bears a cape on “shoulders“. On a body of a tick four pairs of chlenisty legs with two kryuchkasty claws on the last chlenik and the sharp hobotk seated by numerous cloves are well distinguishable.
Cloves are directed back and for this reason it is possible to be exempted from a tick by force, having only torn off a hobotok which at the same time remains zayakorenny in skin. On each side the hobotka settles down couple of shchupik. Having turned the caught tick a paunch up, it is possible and to find with the naked eye on it two oval openings. It dykhalets.
Males it is always less, their length is about 2,5 mm. Females reach 4, and nasosavshiyesya blood - 11 mm. This look is widespread worldwide. He prefers dense vegetation and high humidity of air.
Iksodes ritsinus sucks blood of vertebrata. He attacks on wild and pets, birds and the person. Females lay 1000-3000 eggs on the basis of stalks of plants. In 4-10 weeks the hatched larvae resembling an adult individual superficially scramble on top of a bush and remains there, waiting for the suitable owner.
They accept a peculiar pose: back legs seize a leaf tip, and forward couple of a raskinut in the parties as if the tick is going to embrace the whole world! If by there runs / passes the victim, the tick seizes its wool or clothes and gets over on it.
It is, of course, not really ulovisty way of hunting. But larvae (the same as the pincers which are at other stages of life cycle) are capable in hard times to starve about a year, and in a limit - till one and a half years. Having got the owner, the larva of 3 - 5 days sucks blood if the owner has the small sizes (lizards, birds, mice), then abandons him, hides on soil under a forest laying, and after a molt turns into the nymph.
Nymphs look for the owners as well as a larva, and after 4-8 days of parasitizing on them, they move to the earth and after a molt turn into adult ticks.
Adult males look for the new owner only, having surveyed his indumentum to find for a female. They do not suck blood. The female sucks blood of 7-13 days and abandons the owner that on the earth to lay eggs. If to it carries, and it will quickly find in a row three owners, development lasts about 1-1,5 years, but under adverse conditions - till 4-6 years.
Iksodes of a ritsinus can be met all warm season. Up to snow loss. But two flashes of number are observed: at the end of April - the beginning of May and at the end of August - the beginning of September.
Ticks are capable to breed in very large numbers. So big that deliver a great deal of trouble not only to fans of forest walks, but also cattle on a pasture, and to shepherds. But not this main thing that forces to belong to threat of attack of pincers so seriously.
They serve as carriers of the hardest diseases. Among them such as tick-borne encephalitis, spring meningo - encephalitis, and also borellioz. However it does not mean at all that it is necessary to be locked houses and not to go to the wood.
To secure itself, it is enough to observe several simple of rules :
1. Before a campaign in the wood put on clothes with long sleeves, and fill trousers in boots or put on tights (underpants) under trousers.
2. Surely use repellents (the substances which are frightening off ticks).
3. After you came home, shake clothes in a window and examine each other (before sticking, ticks long look for the suitable place).
4. If you found the stuck tick, it is better to address experts. They not only will help to pull out it, but also will consult you about what to do farther.
5. If your work is connected with frequent campaigns in the wood or you live in a zone where the number of pincers is very big, then it is possible to do vaccination which will protect you and your children from tick-borne encephalitis. However, it is necessary to think of it even in the fall as vaccination is carried out in several steps.
Protect the health!