Lev Kulidzhanov of
Kulidzhanov Lev Aleksandrovich (on March 19, 1924, Tiflis - on February 16, 2002, Moscow) - the outstanding Soviet and Russian film director, the screenwriter and the teacher.
the People`s artist of the USSR, the Hero of Socialist Work
Lev Kulidzhanov was born in the city of Tbilisi in the Armenian family of employees. The father is Kulidzhanov Alexander Nikolaevich, the large party worker, it was arrested in November, 1937. Disappeared and died under the obscure circumstances. Mother - Kulidzhanova Ekaterina Dmitriyevna was also repressed in December, 1937 and sent in ispravitelno - labor camp. “My father was keen on romanticism of revolutionary fulfillments, trusted in their progressive role and divided the humanistic purposes, and it came to an end for him tragically - in November, 1937 he was arrested, and in December of the same year my mother was arrested. The father was condemned by “three“ and received ten years without the right of correspondence as subsequently it became clear, it meant execution. Mother received five years of camps which turned into seven. Left them in Akmalinsky women`s camp for members of families of enemies of the people“, - Lev Aleksandrovich remembered later. According to the story of E. M. Primakov who grew up on one with the director street the glory to juvenile Kulidzhanov was brought by information which extended on the yard that when it was taken away, she shot back. He added oil to fire, having told the friends that his mother shot back from a browning. After arrest of parents Kulidzhanov remained with the grandmother. His youth passed in Tbilisi. Young Kulidzhanov early was fond of art, and first of all theater. In school amateur performances he acted in three persons at once - the playwright, the actor, the director.
In 1942 Lev Kulidzhanov graduated from school and entered the Tbilisi state university on an evening department, having at the same time got a job the mechanic on the Tbilisi tool plant which was letting out at that time shooting arms.
attends actor`s school at Goskinoprom of Georgia In free time. At this time meets the sister of the friend, the student of the first course of scenario faculty of the VGIK who did not go to evacuation with institute in Alma - Atu, and remained with relatives in Tbilisi. Stories of the student and her enthusiasm for cinema made deafening impression on Kulidzhanov. He decides to arrive on director`s faculty.
Fall of 1943 the VGIK returned from evacuation to Moscow. The student went to Moscow, promising Kulidzhanov to send all data on reception on director`s faculty. During this hard and hungry time Kulidzhanov got sick with pneumonia, then found the beginning of focal tuberculosis of lungs in it. It left plant. On the next commission in a military registration and enlistment office it recognized unusable to military service. To summer of 1944 process thanks to the combined efforts of relatives managed to be stopped, the centers cicatrized. The student kept the promise - sent reception conditions to director`s faculty. Kulidzhanov collected all references, wrote the application and work for a creative competition and sent all to Moscow in a selection committee.
Summer of 1944 almost without money Kulidzhanov goes in Moscow to come to the VGIK. Entrance examinations were held G. M. Kozintsev, he gathered a course, and the director of the VGIK L. V. Kuleshov. Having successfully passed examinations, Kulidzhanov started occupations. However half-starved existence in not heated hostel and lack of material support seriously affected its health, forced to give up study and to go home, to Tbilisi where after the reference his mother already returned. Pain about illegally repressed parents will remain with Kulidzhanov forever. At this time it meets the future wife Natalya Fokina. Loss of the VGIK was for Kulidzhanov the big tragedy. Then it seemed to it that will not be forces to return there. And all - in 1948 he becomes again the student of the VGIK (masterful S. A. Gerasimova and T. F. Makarova) which ended in 1955.
of the Colleague Kulidzhanov is remembered that in the VGIK it proved to be not only as the director, but also as the brilliant actor. Gerasimov`s proposal became the best assessment of its actor`s gift: to two students of the course, Kulidzhanov and Bocharov, the master suggested to get dances and singing that to graduate from the institute with two diplomas - actor`s and director`s. Both refused, having solved, as there will be enough one diploma. But this offer was worth a lot.
Same 1955 Kulidzhanov debuted the short film “Ladies“ (together with G. Oganisyan, according to A. P. Chekhov`s story). Then together with I. Segel removed two tapes - “It began so“ (1956) about life of the first tselinnik and “The house in which I live“ (1957, Kulidzhanov played also one of roles), tracing pre-war and post-war destinies of inhabitants of one Moscow yard. Such creative commonwealth was an everyday occurrence for the middle of 1950 - x years when the beginning directors quite often tandems “rushed“ into big cinema - Kulidzhanov and Segel, Mironer and Khutsiev, Alov and Naumov, Abuladze and Chkheidze, Daneliya and Talankin, Saltykov and Meath. It is obvious that at a certain stage of a career of directors such co-authorship was fruitful and it is necessary.
1960 - e years in these works Kulidzhanov`s interest not only in the present, permanently interconnected public and personal events, but also in an image of an existing, life of simple people, their sincere alarms and hopes, usual human feelings was shown. Return to the screen of the person, close and clear on the experiences, being unique identity regardless of the held position in society, corresponded also to Kulidzhanov`s aspirations.
Having continued independent director`s activity, he achieved in “Native home“ (1959) and in the best picture “When Trees Were Big“ (1961) of rare warm-heartedness, lyricism, sincerity, warmth, humanity of intonation in the story about those whom it is accepted to call “little people“. Even such personality, marginal to social measures, as the drunkard Kuzma Iordanov in convincing execution of Yu. Nikulin, or the mild girl Natasha ready with pleasure to take it for the father (surprisingly light and pure heroine I. Gulaya), deserve true sympathy and love.
It is possible to consider natural the subsequent appeal of the director to the world Dostoyevsky though his screen version of the “Crime and punishment “ (1970, the State award of RSFSR, 1971) surprised with a cinema expressionism, sometimes rigidity and sharpness of a graphic row. Thirst for external expressiveness and a paradoxicality of comparisons on the basis of real events of history and the imprinted chronicle of a century led Kulidzhanov (despite his public and party posts) to complications during the work on the documentary “Star Minute“ (1972, release of 1975) about the first-ever flight of Yury Gagarin in space.
Kulidzhanov`s aspiration to humanize and dramatize images of political leaders - Lenina in “A blue notebook“ (1964, according to E. G. Kazakevich) and Karl Marx in a TV series “Karl Marx. Young years“ (together with a film studio of “DEFA“ (GDR) (1980, the Lenin award, 1982) - turned back semi-success in the art plan, and from the ideological point of view the director was forced to go on compromises and concessions, necessarily idealizing these ambiguous historical persons.
B Lev Kulidzhanov was 1962 one of coauthors of the scenario of circus representation “A carnival in Cuba“, put in in the Moscow circus in Tsvetnoy Boulevard. Very few people know that during the period from 1962 to 1963 he removed film plots for a satirical newsreel “Match“ (Editor-in-chief S. Mikhalkov).
Creative activity of L. A. Kulidzhanov throughout all his life was actively combined with big administrative and public work. From 1963 to 1964 he headed head department of art cinematography at State cinema of the USSR. In 1964 became the chairman of the Organizing committee of the Union of cinematographers of the USSR. In 1965 on 1 - the m congress of cinematographers was elected by the first secretary of Board of the Union and worked on this post more than 20 years.
Certainly, it was possible to reproach it that he insufficiently vigorously interceded for the colleagues who fell into disgrace. At least for the same Sergey Paradzhanov, during a kulidzhanovsky sekretarstvo who twice stayed term. By contrast with violent temperament of the previous head of the film union Ivan Pyryev of silent Kulidzhanov named “the sleeping Lev“.
It got the most difficult years of the management of the union when he really could make the little for Muratova, Tarkovsky, Herman or others, not fitting into establishment. But that could it did, and to feign activity was not in its style, and in any case, he never promised what could not execute. In memory of colleagues it remained not only as the director, but also as a kind angel of cinematographers - Eisenstein`s archive which was quietly helping business and council, rescuing movies, kept. The Museum of cinema is obliged to Kulidzhanov by the emergence, thanks to its efforts there was a Movie center.
In 1986 after 5 - go, “revolutionary“, congress of the Union of cinematographers at which its shift from the post of the first secretary of Board held by it during 21 year was widely publicized Lev Aleksandrovich left structure of the Union. Kulidzhanov never giving to the presidency of any special public value quietly continued to go about the own business. Till 1989 worked as the artistic director of the film epic “20th century“ which, unfortunately, was carried out only partially. Taught in the VGIK. In 90 - e he put two movies - a picture about Stalin repressions “It is not terrible to die“ (1991) and the psychological drama «of the Forget-me-not“ (1994), marking return to themselves, to the manner of 1950 for the director - x years, confidential in relation to the individual destinies of simple people which were only more dramatized, not ignoring pernicious breaks of a Stalin era. Also its attitude towards itself always characterized rare - especially for the creative person - adequacy did not change. Lev Kulidzhanov did not depend on opinion of others because knew about himself and the director`s opportunities is much bigger, than somebody. And this exact knowledge insured him from fussy ambition and trite offenses of the underestimated genius. Lev Kulidzhanov belonged to
to the first generation which came to cinema after the Great Patriotic War. Its movies “The House in Which I Live“ (1957), “Native home“ (1959), “When trees were big“ (1961), the “Crime and punishment “ (1969) steels classics of the Soviet cinema.
He was one of first “men of the sixties“, the representative of “a new wave“ in the Soviet cinema, one of the most humane, worthy directors of old school and firm heads of the Union of cinematographers of the USSR.
Lev Aleksandrovich Kulidzhanov lived and worked in Moscow. He died from a heart attack on February 18, 2002 on 78 - m to year of life. It is buried in Moscow on the Kuntsevsky cemetery.
People`s artist of the USSR (1976)
Hero of Socialist Work (1984).
Is awarded by two Orders of Lenin, an award of the Labour Red Banner, and also awards of Hungary and Bulgaria.
the Award “For Merits before the Fatherland“ of the III degree (1999) for an outstanding contribution to development of motion picture art and in connection with 75 - and the anniversary.
Professional awards, prizes and awards.
1999 - A prize of the President of the Russian Federation “For an outstanding contribution to development of the Russian cinema“ - the X Open Russian Kinotavr film festival (Sochi)
1994 - the Special prize of jury of the Window to Europe film festival in Vyborg for the movie “Forget-me-nots“ (1994)
1982 - the Lenin award for the television movie “Karl Marx. Young years“ (1980, 7 series) (USSR / GDR)
1982 - the Big prize of the All-Union festival of television movies for the television movie “Karl Marx. Young years“ (1980, 7 series) (USSR / GDR)
1971 - the State award RSFSR of a name of brothers Vasilyev for the movie “Crime and punishment “ (1969)
1970 - Participation in the Main program of the International film festival in Venice with the movie “Crime and punishment “ (1969)
1962 - Participation in the Main program of the International film festival in Cannes with the movie “When Trees Were Big“ (1961)
1960 - the Winner of the All-Union film festival in Minsk in the nomination “The Second Prizes among Feature Films for 1960“ for the movie “Native home“ (1959)
1960 - the Second award of the All-Union film festival for the script for the movie “Native home“ (1959)
1959 - Participation in the Main program of the International film festival in Cannes with the movie “Native home“ (1959)
1959 - the Award International kiofestivalya workers in ChSSR for the movie “Native home“ (1959)
1958 - A World Fair in Brussels (An award for the best statement, the Award of the General commissariat of section of the UN) for the movie “The House in Which I Live“ (1957)
1958 - the Winner of the All-Union film festival in Moscow in the nomination “Special Awards to Movies for 1958“ for the movie “The House in Which I Live“ (1957)
1955 - Ladies (together with G. Oganisyan)
1956 - It began so … (together with Ya. Segel)
1957 - the House in which I live (together with Ya. Segel)
1959 - the Native home
1960 - the Lost photo
1961 - When trees were big
1963 - the Blue notebook
1966 - will not bring happiness (short)
1969 - the Crime and punishment
1975 - Star minute
1979 - Karl Marx. Young years (USSR / GDR) - the Lodge at a village fence
1986 - the Autumn meeting
1991 - it is not terrible to
1990 to Die
1994 - Forget-me-nots
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