Old Russian spiritual singing. What it was?
It is possible to fall into mournful tone at once and to complain about a strange situation which developed in Russia and not only.
We know domestic music starting with M. I. Glinka, heard the words “choral“, “mass“, “oratorio“. What did east Slavs have and to Glinka? It is known to the little. Assume that there was a folk music: songs and national tools. It is correct.
Know less about a sacred music. And the belief was a core of Old Russian culture very long, in temples painting and music was born. They are unique. But if all know about icons and around the world, then know about ancient church music very little or almost nothing.
And the ancient znamenny chant was, according to the academician B. Asafyev, “the most monumental arch of melodic treasures“. Let`s talk just about the facts, out of estimated judgments.
Practical organization of singing business is connected with names of Saint Theodosius of the Caves (1008-1074), one of founders Kiyevo - Pechersky monastery (nowadays Ukraine), and the prelate Kirilla Turovsky (1130-1182, Rounds, now - Belarus). The last was even called “the Russian silver-tongued orator“.
Znamenny chant , the znamenny chant (singsong) is and there is the most ancient type of East Slavic liturgical singing.
Cannot still come to a consensus as there was a znamenny chant. There are two polar points of view. The first - that this absolutely unique and original phenomenon, out of any external influences: in the 11th century church singing in Kievan Rus` had “very impressive volume of the books and melodies so firm and national that they remained up to now“.
The opposite point of view correlates a znamenny chant to the Byzantine tradition. Truth, as usual, in the middle, but it is possible to say that even at some loans original style of singing, a little general having with Byzantine odnogolosiy was formed with confidence.
There was also a unique notopisaniye (designation of notes). If it is precisely known that in the West “the monk Guido Aretinsky thought up notes“, then who “thought up notes“ at east Slavs - it is unknown. Assume only that it happened approximately along with creation of the Slavic alphabet.
It is obvious that the znamenny notation was not from where - that it is copied, and it is developed in the 11th century in Kievan Rus` and extended already from there including farther on Hugo - the West.
So, church chants “were put on a banner“ - that is on a peculiar musical letter. Thereby written was added to oral tradition of transfer of musical knowledge and practice.
Banners , or nevma, could be simple or compound - to show only height of a sound or the whole melodic course. Banners call still Hooks (in foreign languages and remained - Krjuki, Kryuki). There were also first singing “alphabets“ with interpretation of symbols - banners (hooks).
Hooks had names, they are remarkable: a hook simple with a magpie leg and podchashiy; a hook gloomy with a delay; a hook light with subnimble; a stopitsa with a point; revodka with a cloudlet; a derbitsa with a point; a double comma with article; skameyets tresvetly; article with kryzhy; a zmiyets with article; two in a boat with a delay; an arrow mrachnotikhy with a protyagnenny cloudlet; the arrow is tryasopovodny; a spider with article; smart guy is fleet.
Over 200 signs, and unless it is similar on to - re - mi - fa - salt - la - SI? Index dung or cinnabaric signs - “lomitelny“, “muscleman“, y U-00ABa yawn“ “a vospyatoglasny quote“ and others were added to hooks.
But it is signs now - hooks look and are called unclear. All these znamenny “notes“ incorporated elements of Christian symbolics. Same of “roofs“ - a cross, “is also “drawn“ by that. “Cup“ or “podchashy“ - the well-known symbol of a bowl. These “notes“ had also clearer ethical filling. Article - “a sramosloviya and idle talks otbegany“. Smart guy of the borzoi and silent - “pride and everyones a lie adjournment“. Two in a boat - “to a doublethink adjournment“.
Znamenny chants were a peculiar synthesis. The word and a melody were uniform, in unity they also made a prayer.
The concept “ osmoglasy “ - system of eight voices, having certain lines and used during certain periods of church year was connected with it. Use of these voices symbolized eternity, a certain cycle, “circle“. And time is not linear, it is a circle, eternity.
Actually there passed the millennium since in the territory of modern Ukraine, Russia, Belarus the special type of singing and a special type of a sound recording appeared. However it is much lost. And “notation“ is far not completely deciphered still. Work is continued, different experts participate in it: from medievalists (specialists in the Middle Ages) to mathematicians.
But the znamenny chant practically disappeared from practice of church singing, having remained only in some places. There is a lot of reasons for that. At first church reform - and after the 17th century the znamenny chant left, having given way to the European singing. And record of notes was already kept by means of acquaintances of all five rulers and “round“ notes. Ancient traditions disappeared (“ with all the infinite treasures which disappeared in the ocean of history like legendary Atlantis “).
In remembrance only the Old Believers living now everywhere on the world tried to hold them. Also there was a cardinal change of the manner vostochnoslavyanskogo church singing.
There was so-called a partesny singing - and it already polyphony (part - part). That is when sing on several voices, and these are already the chords born on the melody course in different voices it is harmonization, a tonality, it is already Europe. However partesny singing in Hugo`s brotherhoods - the Western Russia which sought to create something other than Catholic chants from them “organ buzz“ was born. From the South polyphony came to Novgorod and Moscow.
There were also scientific treatises: teoretichesko - esthetic work of the Muscovite Ioannikiya Trofimovich Korenev “Musikiya“ (that is music) and “Idea of grammar musikiysky“ Kiev resident Nikolay Diletsky (1630-1680). The first wrote that “the musikiya is the second philosophy and grammar“, and tried to keep old, absorbing new tendencies from the South. At the second - actually the first practical textbook on musical composition. Diletsky himself also composed much, and his “musikiya“ was executed not one century.
Time polyphony appeared - the chorus in modern understanding appeared. The new style which kept nevertheless many stylistic features of earlier music. There was a vocational education of choristers. If secular music long was “foreign“, then national and spiritual were original and unique. “ If the grief then having nothing in common with primary sufferings... as if here the sounded armor and armor... there are no coddled chuvstvovaniye, the lyric poet of deep tests, heroic iron endurance and resilience here... the melodies sustained, allocated with elasticity of a spring “, - B. Asafyev wrote.
To the faithless person the subject of Old Russian church singing can be quite uninteresting. But the high art value of icons for quite some time now admits. Not smaller cultural property the znamenny chant, ancient and not similar to anything, with its majestic difficult simplicity admits. And exclusively difficult designation of sounds.
Besides there were also other types of liturgical singing: kondakarny, stolpovy singsongs, traveling singsong, demestvenny (festive) singing.
Many opening still ahead. And the Znamenny chant was sought to be kept and used in professional music in the 19th century.