Sex issue. Whether much we know about ourselves?
Should be told, life of my friends then was filled with subject glasses with histologic cuts and soskoba. Such - something to pound any instructions a stick on glass, to drip in Petri`s cup, to enter the syringe into egg, to carry in the autoclave, to paint - were perceived as routine, the received result was predictable as morning, and is thousandfold is described in textbooks.
Babesh`s little bodies there is Negri, amiloida, tuberculosis mikobakteriya, motionless spermatozoa of a guinea pig came to us in a dream instead of erotic dreams, and the place of the morning sexton was taken by the student muttering a coloring method across Gram.
Therefore all group obediently wrote down in laboratory albums “Lena Has a Little Body Barra“ (and drew one drawing with a black circle on a pink background). Then the group with astonishment wrote down the second result of experience: “Kostik has a little body Barra too“, - and repeated drawing. “What, happens and so“, - the teacher with detachment answered. The lesson was complete.
At lecture told more. That a floor can be not realized at development of an organism and, the most important that sex determination by exact methods not always perhaps.
The fauna was filled by the individuals changing a floor during life - to us pictured the populations of crucians and sword-bearers consisting entirely of the female individuals capable how completely to do without opposite sex and in literal sense to grow missing sexual characters of males.
It turned out that duck-bills doevolyutsionirovat up to 5 couples of sexual chromosomes (XXXXXXXXXX and XYXYXYXYXY) and created gametes of the XXXXX or YYYYY type, without worrying about it at all.
Ordinary chicken was in our narrow-minded understanding a male (a genotype of XY chicken, a heterozygotic floor), and a rooster - a female (XX, a homozygous floor).
Cytoplasmatic bacteria - parasites (for example, rikketsiya) defined feminization and a parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction) of insects.
Grasshoppers in general did without Y - a chromosome, males at them stored XO genotype in the sections (that is one gamete from creating a new organism did not bear a sexual chromosome at all).
Societies of ants as it became clear, are based on work of the individuals developing from not impregnated eggs. Options of gametes XX, XY, XZ occur at insects … to us read
about the mosaic organisms developing in case the part of cages of a germ bears chromosomes of XX, and part of XY.
Of course, the little body Barra found at our Kostik after lecture surprised nobody any more and set thinking rather itself - whether much we know about ourselves...
Concerning all living beings only one was certain - a set sexual (and other) chromosomes can be absolutely any. Everything depends on a case, on what cages under the influence of internal and external factors will create parental organisms.
What will be with the impregnated cage further - whether the organism will be beautiful, clever, viable, healthy, courageous, is prolific or absolutely on the contrary - everything depends on a case. And it is not good or badly. Biology (as if history or linguistics, that is as all primary, fundamental) - nadotsenochny science.
I would not begin to say that at the person in the psychosexual sphere something is organized more difficult, than at animals. In the Middle Ages was considered that women have no soul - on this subject theological debates were arranged.
Now, in times when existence of the personality is recognized not only at women, but also at animal many types, ridiculously to consider the person in something is more unique or in degree of a differentiation of cages to see an evolution result. Yes any cow is cleverer than the nazi. Nobody heard about that the herd of brown cows slaughtered a white cow for carrying a homemade badge for 4 rubles - as it happens on streets of Russia now.
Most likely, the leapfrog with categorical sex determination will proceed until the concept “floor“ is conventional outdated.
Two gender roles are, it is undoubted, convenient for tax administration during the periods of a subear tax, for the Minister of War anxious with the weight and amount of the growing-up gun meat. And for other mechanisms of control - it is convenient to deceive people.
But we will talk about how everything is arranged actually, in life, out of a statement of the problem “state“. Though everything rests against the state. The state needs a passport floor (we will specify - man`s, a sex of the soldier, a sex of the security guard, a sex of the legalized murderer). For this purpose so far all knowledge which does admissible the shift of a framework are tabooed.
There are seven options from which the mankind is offered to choose - genetic, gonadny, gametny, hormonal, morphological, civil and, actually, social floor.
in the developed countries determine the Genetic floor in maternity hospital by screening (the analysis is done to all newborns). Soon and we have each school student as the multiplication table, will know features of the chromosomes.
There are several results of such screening - certainly, XX and XY. But: people with a genotype of XO, XXX, XYY, XYYY and so on are born. It is classified as genetic anomalies now though problems at carriers of “unusual“ genes arise not in all cases.
Yes, HO - Shereshevsky`s syndrome - Turner is enough inconveniently, but I was told that many women with this syndrome were socially adapted. A question of humanity of society and desire to deal with a problem.
Yes, men from several Y - chromosomes - so-called “a basketball team of prisons, supermen“ - most often occupy marginal public niches - but only because that their genetic feature is in due time not revealed.
Problems can arise at people with a difficult set of sexual chromosomes in attempt to bring the child - if imperfect gametes are formed.
But in no way the qualitative structure of chromosomes cannot be a reason for discrimination, for human rights violation.
the Gonadny floor
(gonads - gonads, testicles and ovaries), it is a biological floor, defines psychoorientation of the person.
What, by the way, there are options of a gonadny floor?
The female - in an organism is ovaries and a clitoris.
The male - in an organism is testicles.
Hermaphrodites - in an organism are both tissue of an ovary, and small egg fabric + a clitoris and/or a penis.
- farms: ovaries and external male genitals;
- merma: testicles and external female genitals;
Sexless - gonads are absent.
Rather gonadny floor it is possible to tell that it we slozhnoopredelyat - gland fabric biopsy is necessary.
Existence of a gonad not always defines functionality, and functionality not always defines applicability “on places“, in cages.