George Asaki - the founder of the first Romanian theater.......
George Asaki (Gheorghe Asachi (Asaki) (1 on March (12), 1788, with. Hertz, the Moldavian principality - 12 on November (24), 1869, Yassa) - the outstanding Moldavian and Romanian writer, the poet, the artist, the historian, the playwright, the translator and the cultural figure of the Armenian origin.
Promoted development of national theater, the fine arts, brought a big contribution to development of pedagogical thought, created a number of schools and culturally - educational establishments.
George Asaki was born 1 on March (12), 1788 in the north of Moldova in the village of Hertz (nowadays Gertsayevsky district of the Chernivtsi region of Ukraine) in 1788. The family lived earlier in Transylvania where it was known under a surname Asakiyevich.
After the next Russko`s beginning - the Turkish war the family moved to Bukovina, then to Galicia. About 1795 they locate in Lviv. Here Asaki studied in Jesuit college, and in 1803 - 804 years - at philosophical faculty of the Lviv university. After two years of study it returned to Moldova. Soon Asaki`s mother died, and his father was appointed the first archpriest of the Moldavian mother country and moved to Yassy.
At the beginning of 1805 George Asaki ached with malaria and according to the recommendation of doctors it went to be treated to Vienna. He got the state grant and studied mathematics, astronomy and painting. At this time Vienna was occupied with Napoleonic army. In 1808, during the Russian military authorities in Moldova during Russko - the Turkish war, the father Asaki achieved from P. V. Chichagov appointment of the son the lieutenant and the head of the Engineering case, but George Asaki refused to enter a position and in April of the same year left from Vienna to Italy. He intended to continue training in Rome, but on the way visited Trieste, Venice, Padua, Ferarra, Bologna and Florence, and arrived to the capital only on June 11. On August 19 he went to Sicily where he visited Naples and Pompeii.
Soon Osaka returned to Rome where studied the Italian literature, archeology, painting and a sculpture. At this time Osaka wrote the first verses for which received an award from the Romanian literary society. Among poems of that period there was also “Viitorul“ (“Future“) where Asaki called for national revival. Asaki was interested in ancient history of Dacia, studied images on Traian`s Column, looked for in Library of Vatican documents on stories of Dacia and the Danube principalities.
In 1812 George Asaki comes back to the Moldavian principality, having arrived at first to Galatz, and on August 30 to Yassy. Shortly before it according to the Bucharest peace treaty Moldova returned to structure of the Ottoman Empire, and gospodaryom Skarlat Kallimaki was appointed.
Asaki makes huge efforts on development of national culture and education. In 1814 he organized at Gospodarsky academy a class of engineers - land surveyors where he for the first time gave on Moldavian lectures on mathematics, geodesy and architecture.
Cultural activity of Asaki was interrupted in 1821 with the Greek revolution which began in the territory of Moldova which became the arena of battles between the Turkish army and the Greek insurgents. Asaki, as well as many other Moldavians, found a shelter in the Russian territory. In a year it returned as the Ottoman Empire finished the Fanariotsky mode in Moldova, and gospodaryom there was Ioann Sturdza who appointed Asaki the diplomatic representative in Austria and granting it in this regard a noble title. Asaki held a position from November 30, 1822 to February, 1827.
In Vienna Asaki met Austrian Elena Tauber, the former governess at Sturdza`s children and the widow of the merchant Kiriako Melirato. In 1827 they got married in orthodox church in Yassakh. At Elena was three children from the previous marriage whom Asaki adopted.
In 1827 Asaki returned home and was appointed the adviser of department of education, having received a title Aha. In 1828 it promotes opening of the elementary school and the Vasilyevsky gymnasium called in honor of Vasile Lupu.
After the conclusion of the Adrianople world the Russian protectorate over the Danube principalities was established, and Asaki was elected the secretary of the Moldavian committee on development of Organic regulations. In 1829 under its edition from approval of the Russian administration the first Moldavian newspaper “Alben romynyaske“ begins to appear (“Albina Romineasca“, 1829-49). In 1830 Asaki was a part of delegation which went to St. Petersburg for coordination of Organic regulations with the Russian government.
The big impression on Asaki was made by the principles of functioning of the state institutes in Russia, and he tried to reproduce them in Moldova. After return from St. Petersburg, it became the head of the state archive, published a number of documents on country stories, created “Society of physicians and naturalists“, based a tipolitografiya and the first paper-mill in Moldova, issued magazines, textbooks.
Since 1834 Asaki was the closest associate new gospodarya Mikhail Sturdzy, advanced training at the Moldavian language. In 1840 - e years he defended conservative values, resisted to the liberal movement gaining popularity, opposed the Moldavian revolution of 1848 and the union of the Moldavian principality with Walachia, took active actions to prevent this union.
When after association, in Yassakh there took place national disorders against extension of the union upon termination of Kuza`s government (on April 14, 1866), Asaki was interrogated on suspicion of instigation to mutiny. Later to it it was refused participation during creation of the Romanian Academy.
Participation in various financial enterprises in 1862 resulted it in bankruptcy. Asaki was long time we depend on creditors, and only in February, 1869 the government allocated it pension at a rate of 8888 pour “for merits before the country in 1813 - 1862“. Through several months - on November 12, 1869 in Yassakh, George Asaki died and it was buried in Church of Forty Saints in Yassakh.
The basis of literary creativity of Asaki is made by verses, first of which were written in Italian, and also a large number of short stories and short stories where it described legendary historical events and used the Romanian mythology. The great influence on Asaki`s creativity was exerted by authors of Renaissance (Petrarch, Ariosto, Tasso) and such contemporaries as Roza, Gray, the Burgher, Zhukovsky, Byron and Schiller.
Asaki`s collections of “Poem“ (1836), “The chosen fables“ are known (1836) historical short stories «Princess Ruksana“ (1841), “Elena Moldavian“ (1851), “The white valley“ (1855). Its literary works combine classicism with romanticism. Asaki often used the Moldavian archaisms and regionalisms.
Asaki thought up the fictional earth called by “Dokiya“ (Dochia) - a hint to Dacia and the myth about the woman Dokiya.
Assigned a significant role of Osaka to theater. On its initiative in Yassakh in 1816 the private theater in which the first amateur theatricals in Romanian - Florean and Gesner`s pastoral “Mirtil and Chloe“ are shown, in processing and Asaki`s translation was created. This performance
laid the foundation to development of national theater.
Asaki took part in the Filo - Drama Conservatory organization (1836) training professional actors for the Romanian and Moldavian scenes.
Asaki is the author of a number of the plays which laid the foundation of national dramatic art: “Mihai is the hero of Romanians“, “Dragosh - the first gospodar Moldova“, “The Russian tsar Peter I in Yassakh“, pastorals “A holiday Moldavian: shepherds“. Asaki possesses a number of processings and the translations of works of foreign dramatic art. It also published the libretto of a number of the famous operas, than promoted emergence of the Moldavian opera art.
The prime minister - the minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Romania to M. Kogylnichan said that “George Asaki at that time made so much how many all Moldavians combined “
the street and lyceum called by the Name of Asaki in Chisinau. In Klassikov Avenue Asaki`s bust is established (1957, the sculptor L. I. Dubinovsky). In honor of Asaki streets in Balti, Kagul, Kalarashe, Dondyushanakh, Faleshtakh, Floreshtakh, Oknitsa, Ryshkanakh, Sorokakh, Bender are called).
“Scene mirror“ of
05. 01. 2011
- - - - - -
at the end of the 19th century in Bessarabia George Asaki created the first Armenian community, founded the first Armenian school in Yassakh which continued the activity in premises of church of St. Zakariya. Provided school with textbooks in Armenian.
Demanded from the Romanian and Moldavian authorities for the Armenians living there, the status of citizens of the country. Having devoted all life of Bessarabia, asked to bury him by all Armenian traditions.