Ice slaughter. What do we note in Day of military glory of Russia?
the next Day of military glory of Russia - the Victory Day of the Russian soldiers of the prince Alexander Nevsky over the German knights on Lake Chudskoye (Ice slaughter, 1242) is celebrated on April 18. This holiday is founded by the Federal law No. 32 - Federal Law of March 13, 1995 “About days of military glory and memorials of Russia“.
Let`s be had mentally to those days and we will present how everything then occurred and what strategic importance for Russia had Ice slaughter...
Summer of 1240 the German knights who are brought together from all fortresses of Livonia intruded in the Novgorod earth. The army of aggressors consisted of Germans, medvezhan, yuryevets and the Danish knights from Revel. With them there was a deserter - the prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich. Russia was already fairly weakened Tatar in those days - Mongols, and the army of the Livonsky award was rather strong and perfectly armed. The first victim of the western invasion the city of Izborsk fell. On revenue to fellow countrymen residents of Pskov rushed, but their militia got beaten. One killed there were more than 800 people, including the voivode Gavrila Gorislavich. In the wake of fugitives Germans approached Pskov, passed Velikaya River then settled down under walls of the Kremlin, lit the posad and began to destroy churches and neighboring villages. The whole week they kept the Kremlin in a siege, preparing for storm. But before business did not reach: the resident of Pskov Tverdilo Ivanovich handed over the city. Knights took hostages and left the garrison in Pskov.
Germans after the first progress began to speak: “Let`s reproach Slovenian... ourselves“, that is we will subordinate to ourselves the Russian people. In the winter of 1240-1241 knights were uninvited guests to the Novgorod earth again. This time they took “the Vodsky pyatina“, then seized Board.
Thus in hands of knights there was an extensive territory in the area Izborsk - Pskov - Sabres - Tesov - Koporye. Then Novgorodians remembered about the prince Alexander. The lord Novgorod went to ask the grand duke Vladimir Yaroslav Vsevolodovich that that released the son, and Yaroslav, understanding all danger of the threat proceeding from the West, agreed: business concerned not one Novgorod, but all Russia.
Military art of Alexander Yaroslavich nicknamed Nevsky already then was glorified across all Russia: in 1240 when Swedes went war to Novgorod, he was not also 20 years old. Earlier he participated in campaigns of the father, but it had no own experience of the management of army yet. 21 (on July 15), 1240 the prince together with the small team and the Ladoga militia sudden and prompt attack broke the Swedish army which landed in the mouth of the Izhora River, in that place where it falls into Neva. For a victory in the Nevsky fight in which the young prince proved to be the talented military leader, showed personal valor and heroism, he also was nicknamed by Nevsky.
the Saint blessed prince Alexander Nevsky and acted this time as the real keeper of Russia. By the beginning of 1242 Alexander waited for the brother Andrey Yaroslavich with troops of the Suzdal principality. When the army of the brother was on approach, Alexander with the Novgorod forces acted under Pskov and surrounded it. The award did not manage to collect quickly reinforcements and to send the help to besieged. Pskov was taken, the garrison is killed, and medal deputies in fetters were sent to Novgorod.
The fight on Lake Chudskoye which became history under the name “Ice Slaughter“ began early in the morning on April 5, 1242. At sunrise, having noticed small group of the Russian shooters, knightly “pig“ directed on it. Shooters assumed a main blow of armor “snout“ and considerably disturbed with courageous resistance its advance. But all - to knights was succeeded to break through defensive orders of Russian “forehead“. Fierce hand-to-hand fight was started. And in its heat when “pig“ was completely involved in fight, on her flanks in all power struck regiments of the left and right hand Alexander Nevsky`s signal. The knights who were not expecting emergence of such reinforcement of Russians came to confusion and under their powerful blows began to recede gradually. And soon this retreat accepted nature of chaotic flight. Here suddenly from - for shelters in fight the horse zasadny regiment rushed. Livonsky troops suffered a crushing defeat.
Russians drove them on ice of 7 more versts to the west bank of Lake Chudskoye. 400 knights were destroyed and taken prisoner 50. The part of Lebanese sank in the lake. Escaped from an environment the Russian cavalry pursued, having finished their defeat.
What this victory for Russia which is already weakened by continuous wars and civil strifes mattered? The Livonsky Award requested the world. Which was concluded on the conditions dictated by Russians. Medal ambassadors solemnly renounced all infringement of Russian lands which was temporarily taken by an award. The movement to Russia of the western aggressors was stopped. The western boundaries of Russia established after Ice slaughter held on the whole centuries.