Mihai Eminesku (Eminovich) is the genius of the Romanian poetry.
Singer of a morning star.
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the Name of Mihai Eminesku is considered the Saint for any Romanian or the Moldavian today. The classic of the Romanian literature, the founder of modern Romanian literary process and one of torches Romanian culturally - national revival, the creator of the national anthem of Romania and the thinnest lyric poet, and also the person of encyclopedic knowledge, the bright publicist, the polemist who was on an edge of tendencies and problems of an era - Eminesku can honor any nation and any culture. Especially is higher and higher told important if to consider that Mihai Eminesku is closely connected with Ukraine and is integrated part not only the Romanian or Moldavian, but also Ukrainian history.
Though almost unnoticed passed in Ukraine 160 - the anniversary since the birth of the poet. Anniversaries of people of such level are usually held with observance of the protocol, in the Ukraine palace, with participation of the top officials of the state … Alas! In Ukraine there was a presidential campaign at this time, before the first round of elections there were two days - to whom what business to some poet?
Mikhail Eminovich (the real name of the genius was it) was born on January 15, 1850 in Botoshanakh, nowadays being in the territory of Romania. More precisely - in the village of Ipoteshti near Botoshanami. Today Botoshani - quite large Romanian city with the population in 115 thousand people. In the middle of the 19th century it was one of the centers of the Moldavian principality which is ethnographic relating to Bukovina. It was inhabited mainly Ukrainian (Carpatho-Russian), Jewish (the native of Botuoshang became, for example, the most famous Rybnitsky Reba) and Moldavian (the prince of Moldova Grigor to Alexander Gika at whose government Mikhail was born, was a native Botuoshang) by the population - with an insignificant impregnation of foreigners. Eminovich were Armenians who originally did business in this region, and began to be engaged in agriculture later. Mikhail`s father was a land owner and the person of very strict rules. Mother is Radula Eminovich - left an indelible mark which is traced in its poems in soul of the son.
The childhood and Mihai Eminesku`s youth (quite so - on the Romanian harmony - the poet began to write the surname) passed in the territory of Ukraine, on Bukovina. Bukovina called during that time by Green Russia was really international edge. Here various beliefs, cultural currents, languages and nationalities got on. And got on peacefully, without any conflicts and serious shocks. The knowledge of several languages was absolute norm for inhabitants of Bukovina. Therefore you should not be surprised that Eminesku perfectly owned Ukrainian and even communicated with figures of the Ukrainian culture, was svedushch in questions of the Ukrainian literary process.
At the end of 50 - x years Mihai comes to a gymnasium in Chernivtsi. One of the first poems he devoted memories of the favourite teacher of literature - Aron Pumnul, the convinced patriot and the participant of revolution of 1848 which name called one of streets of modern Chernivtsi. Already this poem opens talent of the poet. Later Eminesku moves to Vienna where he begins work in the underground circle “Young Romania“.
Under the influence of revolutionary currents and the Commune of Paris of 1871 Mihai becomes the supporter of radical political views: its civil lyrics is through impregnated with social radicalism and belief in a celebration of front lines - by the standards of that time - views. Among other things, he is fond of Byron and Heine, becomes the member of various secret circles, studies philosophy, economy. There are data that he was familiar with Marx`s creativity though can be hardly considered as the follower of Marxism. In a word, “scolded Homer, Feokrit, but read Adam Smith and there was a deep house-keeper“. It seems that Pushkin anticipated in “Eugene Onegin“ Eminesku`s image - the person, more educated and comprehensively developed it was difficult to find in all Eastern Europe … Though it is possible to compare two more people to Eminesku - Ivan Franco and Tomasz Masarik.
By the way, with Ivan Franco (who was younger than Eminesku for six years) the poet a was sign. As well as with his teacher Mikhail Dragomanov. Both figures of the Ukrainian culture left the mark in Eminesku`s life. At least, they influenced also his creativity, and at his views: process of mutual penetration of cultures during that time was incommensurably above, than during our era of globalization. In 1870 Eminesku enthusiastically met a release of the first Ukrainian newspaper on Bukovina - “Bukovinska zorya“.
Eminesku was necessary to conduct long time almost nomadic life. Trying to find work, he lived in Bucharest and played in theater, worked as the theatrical prompter later. At the same time wrote verses - penetrating, lyrical. At this particular time there were its poems “Imitators“, “Memento mori“, “Emperor and Proletarian“, five “Messages“ - satirical and at the same time deeply lyrical works.
After Eminesku will call “complete expression of the Romanian soul“, “the most Romanian poet“ and even “the prechisty Saint of the Romanian poetry“. During lifetime he had to wander, live from hand to mouth. Even editorial work in one of the right Romanian newspapers did not bring it desired welfare and prosperity. It worked, worked, worked. Translated Kant, Schopenhauer and Confucius. Studied Chinese, Sanskrit, east philosophy. Some works allow to say that Eminesku was a sign with Masonic rituals and, perhaps, is similar to other masons, was engaged in search of the Eternal East. Considerable influence on Eminesku was made by Elena Blavatskaya. He becomes a mystic. In one of Eminesku`s poems sings of Luchaferul - the Morning Star. Lucifer`s cult - Luchaferul - Dennitsa is characteristic of secret groups. But thanking Eminesku Luchaferul becomes almost national symbol of Moldavians and Romanians - is so bright and original this star and its love to the terrestrial woman in works of the poet are sung.
Chernivtsi, Vienna, Berlin, Bucharest, again Vienna - Eminesku carries out all life on wheels, looking for rest. But thin nature did not find calm. He is a rebel at heart, the patriot on beliefs, left on views. It obviously advances the era. Though … Bukovina during that time (received the status of the duchy within Avstro - Hungary) shows breadth of views. Fedkovich`s Not traditional character, Kobylyanskaya`s ultrafeminism, the real boom of an evropeyskost and progressive currents - all this characterized Chernivtsi and Bukovina. Conservatism, appear, avoided this edge. Here new views, new approaches were produced. Probably, not casually Vienna authorities planned to turn Chernivtsi into the largest bank center which by 1940 had to become the second-large city of the empire!
Many articles of Eminesku published in the press of that time obviously advance the era and sound actually today. Let`s quote one of biographers who gives excerpts from Eminesku`s works: “We have historians who are not knowing history, the writers and journalists who are not able to write the actors who are not able to play the ministers who are not able to operate the financiers who are not able to consider; therefore we have so many dull papers therefore there is so much animal squeal in theaters therefore so many times change ministers and the ministries therefore there are so much bankrupts. It is easier to find the people calling into question the existence of God, than soul in love with language and customs of the ancestors than the hearts in love with the most expressive lines of our people, minds occupied with vital problems of those people on which back we write all phantasmagorias of our false civilization“.
The second quote (from the article “Real and Fictitious Progress“): “Low cultural level and at the highest levels, and in bottoms - yet not the biggest disaster... All seek only to one - to use advantages of a foreign civilization, but not to create in the country cultural conditions in which such results are achieved by itself“.
As far as it sounds is modern and fresh?
Eminesku could become one of those authors to whom our contemporaries could appeal if not two but: in - the first, we for some reason refuse to consider as authorities of the Romanian figures - and not only Eminesku, but also later, for example, Mirchu Eliade whom recognizes and studies the whole world, except our society (by and large). In - the second, we refuse to Eminesku the right to be considered as the figure of the Ukrainian culture and the Ukrainian history though he himself did not separate from Romanian, Moldavian, German, Armenian or Ukrainian cultures. He was a patriot of Romania, at the same time remaining the patriot and the small homeland - Bukovina.
Spent the last years of life of Eminesku in extreme poverty. The nervous breakdown which he tried to treat in Vienna and Berlin turned back mental disorders. Mihai began to long hallucinations (in the same way as after a while his brother for spirit - Ivan Franco). After a long illness, on June 15, 1889 Eminesku died in Bucharest, being under supervision of psychiatrists.
It was the bereavement - the poet left at the age of 39 years. Practically all advanced European figures of that time responded obituaries. But Eminesku`s death became at the same time and a push to revival and development of the Romanian literature. It turns into a peculiar symbol. The eternal wanderer during lifetime, he becomes object of worship and honoring after death - in the same way as Taras Shevchenko in Ukraine, Adam Mickiewicz in Poland, lord Byron in Britain.
Today it is very important that along with works of the Ukrainian poets and writers school programs included works of great natives of Ukraine - including Eminesku, and Slovak, and Shol - Aleykhem, both Bulgakov, and Akhmatova, and Tselan, and many others. Without them, without understanding of their role and the place the understanding of history of Ukraine in all its difficulties is impossible.
Having learned to appreciate in Eminesku the great Ukrainian (and not just the great Romanian), we will be able to estimate in all beauty and great Ukraine - as cathedral integrity of all her natives creating glory and beauty of our country irrespective of language and a nationality.
… Though, I am afraid, our permanent passion to elections and political small parties will not give chance to consider our past without addiction and in all beauty. And it is a pity … Eminesku is very actual for the Ukrainian reality.
from the article BONDARENKO`S Bone.
“Profile“ No. 39 (157).
09. 10. 2010
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