Laces and fashion. From where you, cotton miracle?
From these hands it is impossible to look away: would look and looked, listened and listened... No, it is not hands of the musician - it is hands of the skilled worker spinning lace on sticks - koklyushka.
There was time when each girl was acquainted with needlework from the early childhood, she needed to be able to spin lace, to prepare for itself a dowry. The skilled worker showed to the girl drawing, gave in hands wooden sticks - koklyushka with the threads which are reeled up on them, punished to hold koklyushka for the middle yes, without concerning threads, to hang in couples on pins, and itself kept saying: “As the singer begins to sing the song, so there begins patterns a maiden!“ Threads on the roller are fixed, in search and a rearrangement in the necessary order alternate, ring - koklyushka as small hand bells tap, and the weightless figured miracle - lace is born.
About a balalaika, bells, combs and a money - know, welcome, the girl - the schoolgirl that skilled workers of the past in the nature and way of the life saw as called and what compared patterns to. The lacy region with sharp teeth reminds a balalaika in a form. And in semicircular cloves bells seemed to them. The square “put“ on a corner - a money, and small teeth trudge as if cock combs grow. You should not be told about a lattice long, it goes as a background, and here will interweave small ovals into it - as if bugs, front sights or spiders in a grass will put, the pattern will become more cheerful at once. Semicircular transparent teeth are called a pavlinka, and sunflowers flaunt in the form of rhombuses...
Why should not touch koklyushka?
Koklyushnik will turn a stick in due form: with a thickening by one end and a neck with a button for winding of threads on another. Will make it of an ivory, a juniper, a fir-tree, a maple, a birch, a linden, an oak or a beech, will process that became smooth, will impregnate with oil that it was possible to wash, and will sometimes take and will hammer a nail that the koklyushka on - special sounded into “heel“: here to you, Marya is the mistress, the tool, sit down, amused, play small sticks quantity up to 400 pieces... The master will think so and will grin in moustaches because he knows: expression “to touch koklyushka“ meant in Russia to waffle, tell a nonsense. Penno`s
- magnificent, from Europe alienthe Recognized legislator of world fashion was always considered as
France, however emergence of the term “lace“ is dated back to the second half of the 16th century, and here many European countries apply for superiority. The different types of laces called in the place of their creation are known: “Venetian“, “Flemish“, “âîëàíñüåí“, “Bruxelles“, “Brabant“ - the most surprising and precious. About them Gumilev has lines: “Or revolt having onboard found, from - for belts tears the gun, so, that gold from laces, from pinkish Brabant cuffs pours...“ By the way, not only pirates loved laces, but also kings, innkeepers, officers and monks, princesses and peasants... Lace went for production of ties, collars, cuffs, scarfs, tops of boots and gloves, decoration of carriages, beds, thrones, furniture, altars.
If to speak about “novel“ of women and men, with laces, then not to ignore his graceful “heroine“ in any way - a pin. That about which the storyteller Hans Christiaan Andersen wrote: “I am simply ready to think that I was born from a ray of sunlight, - so I am thin! The right, apparently, as if the sun looks for me under water!“ Scientists claim that exactly thanks to emergence of such needle with a head on the end weaving of laces on koklyushka became possible.
Where “initial“ corbel?
It is considered h2 that the Russian history of a kruzhevopleteniye begins... from the same Belgian Brabant where grew up flax where then in crude cellars that the tow was damp, girls spun it the gentle fingers, receiving elastic and thin nitnezhno - pink color. Exactly from here in 1725 the emperor Peter I wrote out nuns - skilled workers who began to train girls - orphans of the Novodevichy Convent in Moscow in weaving of laces. Surprisingly, but the cotton weaving of a rare sample of the 12th century which by miracle remained from Suzdal the ornament very close to a pattern of a carved corbel on the Dmitrovsky cathedral in Vladimir and to initials of hand-written books of that time.
In 1883 the Russian scientist of a foreign origin Johann Gottlieb Georgi in the research called “About collateral country works“ wrote: “ Many peasants are able to spin very fairly not tokmo narrow, but also wide laces with which decorate the scarfs, cloths and other. Instead of pins for an attachment to a pillow they partly use fish bones... At a correction of a ceremony of spinning and weaving by kindness of threads will be better, especially when we will try together and about good skolkovy taste “.
“Good skolkovy taste“ developed in several centers of a kruzhevopleteniye and had the features. So, the Vologda lace, with its color, gold and silver threads in lattices and smooth lines, differed from the Yelets ornament easy and gentle, with a grid on a through, transparent background; in the Kirishi lace, on the contrary, a background heavy, and in Ryazan bright color compositions by all means joined...
Wonderful lacy art had recessions and rises. In the 19th century the intellectuals “went to the people“, estimated beauty pro-seams - a lacy insert in clothes, and therefore mikhaylovsky measured lace from the Ryazan province became demanded. It supplied both capitals, in it traded at the Nizhny Novgorod fair, sent it to Turkey and Iran.
Last century, in 50 - e years, light lace with a large static flower - the peculiar “vitamin of pleasure“ created by skilled workers of the Vologda factory “Snezhinka“ already necessary during a post-war time for our women was extraordinary fashionable.
Lacy X - files
masters strictly kept At all times secrets of the craft, even under tortures they did not give the secrets, happened, as the death overtook them... Examples in the history of crafts a set. Modern technologies cannot repeat filigree work of jewelers of ancient Athens and Petersburg pozolotchik. The secret of production of the Chinese porcelain was more expensive than gold. Only rich grandees were able to afford to look in a mirror which was made on Murano`s island near Venice until Louis XIV enticed masters to France and those did not tell secret of production of mirrors with amalgam. 300 years people admire singing of Stradivarius violins, and scientists cannot still open a secret of the ordinary handicraftsman from Pyemon.
Lace makers have X - files, and it is drawing - rolling pins. Long a pencil on paper removes - the skilled worker thinks out it, catches an instant of art inspiration, uses both the imagination, and supervision over the nature. And will show nobody until itself does not weave a unique lacy miracle. Now let all admire!
As from a song of the word you will not throw out
in line with fashionable tendencies, both from a lacy pattern you will not extend a thread, and from modern fashionable glamour style you will not clean already anywhere. However what bad is in charm, charm and a charm - namely this word is so translated from English?
From the ideas soaring in what air how from foam sea young Aphrodite, is born the windy beauty - fashion? Who manages to catch these ephemeral fluctuations of taste and style, to catch them, to catch to draw on paper, and then to embody in fabric, skin, bellows or... lace?
In reviews of fashionable tendencies of spring of 2011 we read: “Domenico Dolce and Stephano Gabana released the whole collection from white lace. Black, white and any flowers, it occurs also at many other fashion houses - not only in clothes, but also in bags and footwear “.
The famous Russian couturiers Vyacheslav Zaytsev and Valentin Yudashkin do not neglect in finishing either bright pastes, or spangles, or beads, or pearls.
Back - to laces? No, forward - to beauty and perfection!