Rus Articles Journal

Nightmare of Ivan Ivanovich. How blood circulation circles were open?

Ivan Ivanovich considered himself as the person quite successful and taken place. Having embodied dreams of the youth, by 50 years he was an owner of the prestigious car and the cozy apartment where his economic and careful spouse and two dear kids daily met. Ivan Ivanovich saw guarantee of the success in a constant control. Painting and planning, achieving desirable results, he constantly had the finger on the pulse of life. That not to miss something and not to be sorry about irrevocably lost opportunities.

Having stepped over a semicentennial boundary, Ivan Ivanovich considered it necessary to take under vigilant control and the health. Except pulse of life, now it regularly probed the pulse and measured arterial pressure.

Having seen figures on an automatic tonometer, Ivan Ivanovich with pleasure yawned. “As at the astronaut“, - he thought and, having stroked the white plastic case of the device, plunged into a sweet quiet sleep. The tonometer near a pillow protected its tranquility and confidence.

At night Ivan Ivanovich suddenly felt fear and concern. The dreadful dream broke feeling of stability and internal comfort. Having given a hand, he did not grope a tonometer on the habitual place. The device disappeared forever, having deprived of an opportunity to watch of it over the health. The heart attack and a stroke in an image of demons gave to it hands. The hypertension with a long hooked nose, hollow eyes and elf-lock made advances in black attires, without leaving a way for retreat.

Waving away from the given hands, Ivan Ivanovich felt how the support began to leave from - under legs, for a second having felt zero gravity, he promptly rushed down. Povinuyas to will of destiny, having closed eyes, he stopped thinking, to plan, to wish and began to wait. And suddenly felt that him carries rough waters of the river of time. Without resisting an imperious current, Ivan Ivanovich opened eyes and began to examine coast with the series of events located on them.

Here the founder of medicine Hippocrates divides vessels into two systems: blood veins and pneumatic arteries. Thanks to the huge authority due to the made unique supervision and discoveries, his delusion is accepted as indisputable truth. Aristotle, Praksagor, Erazistrat snare the false statement. Ancient scientists have a certain and firm notion: on veins from heart to the periphery blood moves, on arteries “spirit“, “vital force“, “warmth“ moves.

Ivan Ivanovich, realizing harm of this delusion for development of the doctrine about the blood movement, groped fingers a carotid, felt the stream pulsing, pushed by heart. With feeling of a deep regret, carried away by a current of time, it continued the way in centuries.

2nd century of our era. Claudius Galen is the initiator of experimental medicine, ingenious experience on the simplicity proves availability of blood in arteries and its movement on them. Ivan Ivanovich`s face lights up with pleasure, before eyes there is an image of a desired tonometer. But at triumph top it plunges into darkness again. Indispensable presence of “vital spirit“, “the spiritualizing vital beginning“ interferes with the great scientist to open truth because it led to the serious conflict with religion!

Galen creates the harmonous and finished theory: veins originate in a liver, an artery - in heart. Veins bear blood “rough“, intended only for food of an organism. Arteries are hit blood in heart, heart prisasyvat “spirit“ from lungs, and arteries bear the “spiritualized“ blood, supplying a body with “the vital force“. Perhaps, the case allowed the scientist to see the movement of blood from the right half in left. He took single supervision for gospel with which he added the wrong theory. The sacred name of Galen and bans of Christian church removed development of medical science on 1,5 thousand years. Ivan Ivanovich`s travel continued in a gloom of ignorance and delusions.

Suddenly in the dark the involuntary traveler saw a spark of a fire which gave hope to it. Having come nearer, Ivan Ivanovich finally lost courage. 1553. Geneva. In a Protestant fire “apostate“ - the Spanish doctor Miguel Servet , together with the “heretical“ book written to them where on several pages the small circle of blood circulation opened for them was described burns. Only three of its copies did not get to fire.

Ivan Ivanovich gave hands, trying to pull out from a flame of the brave scientist, appealed to inquisitors, showing on the shoulder, drawing a tonometer contour. All efforts were vain, and it absolutely drooped. The belief in truth, justice and a possibility of control over health left it. Only one event could give some joy to Ivan Ivanovich: in 1545 the French doctor - the self-educated person Ambroise Pare proves harm of a barbarous way of treatment of wounds red-hot iron and the boiling oil and suggests to replace it with bandages and a stop of bleeding, laying a way to health.

Then it plunged into darkness of mistakes and contradictions, church damnations and bans again and very watchfully treated the ray lit in night. However the ray shone brighter and brighter, drawing Ivan Ivanovich`s attention. In several moments it turned into the powerful beam of education which lit up Renaissance. Inquisition receded before the genius of human reason, there came the period of rise in science, art and culture.

1593, Rome. Professor Andrea Cesalpino describes a small circle of blood circulation, establishes connection between expansion of arteries and reduction of heart, pays attention to a possibility of existence of the message between arteries and veins. He has no fair idea of a big circle of blood circulation yet, but already as much as possible approached a solution. From slanders, charges of godlessness and inquisition it is rescued by the father Kliment VIII, appointing the first Labe - the physician.

In 1598 the Italian senator Carlo Ruini in the treatise on anatomy and pathology of a horse comes to similar conclusions.

Ivan Ivanovich`s heart stood waiting. Shivering for nervousness, he watches closely professor of Paduansky university. Andrea Vesaly strikes the first blow to a final authority of Galen. Having reconsidered its works, Vesaly finds in them 200 mistakes. Relying on own supervision and researches, he declares that no opening in an interventricular partition of heart exists. In 1543 professor publishes the work “About a Structure of a Human Body“ in 7 volumes.

Nechestivets, the slanderer, the deserter, the monster which poisoned with dirty breath Europe (as soon as called the great scientist!) gives a powerful spur to development of research of experience and supervision, but it does not manage to open a small circle of blood circulation. As the devoted attendant of science, he left behind pupils and followers who were fated to finish the begun business. Ivan Ivanovich already ceased to doubt happy end and began to look forward.

Vesaly`s receivers continue works begun by him at Paduansky university. Reald Kolombo , without knowing about Servet`s works, opens a small circle of blood circulation. Iyeronim Fabritsy describes wine valves, without suspecting about their true appointment. Scientists approach long-awaited opening closer and closer.

Ivan Ivanovich rubs palms, preparing for an applause. But! In anatomy and physiology there comes the utter chaos. Nauka and Ivan Ivanovich wait for the genius who connected together, added, finished all previous doctrines to draw the necessary conclusion leading to opening.

At last the turn of a long-awaited event came. Positive emotions to the brim overflowed Ivan Ivanovich. On April 16, 1618 William Garvey on Lamliansky readings and in parallel in Board of doctors began series of lectures on the general anatomy where for the first time sounded opening of blood circulation circles by it. The manuscript it to these lectures under the name “Abstracts to Lectures on the General Anatomy“ is still stored in the British museum. And only in 1628 in Frankfurt Garvey`s work “Anatomic research about the movement of heart and blood at animals“ where he will for the first time formulate the theory of blood circulation will be published and will bring experimental proofs into its advantage.

Then 1661, after Garvey`s death, of Malpigi will find capillaries. In 1732 of Gels arterial pressure at a horse measures. On a knurled way with the increasing speed development of anatomy, physiology and medicine will go, bringing closer Ivan Ivanovich to the treasured condition of confidence and tranquility connected with such, apparently, unimportant ritual as measurement for night of arterial pressure.

The night dream imprinted in Ivan Ivanovich memory on April 16, 1618 as date especially important. Having woken up, he reflected. Came to work before the put time. Came into office with William Garvey`s portrait under the arm. Having hung up a portrait on a foreground near the table, he, thus, estimated an invaluable contribution of the scientist to control over it, Ivan Ivanovich, health.