“N e m e z and from“
“of Nemezis “ - the name of the Armenian punitive operation (by the name of goddesses of a fair penalty and Nemesis`s revenge) on implementation of acts of punishment concerning the leaders of the Turkish party “Unification and Progress“ guilty of the organization and implementation of ARMENOTsIDA - Genocide of Armenians of 1915.
After defeat of Turkey in World War I of 1914 - 1918 leaders a mladoturok were taken out from Constantinople on the German vessel to Germany.
The decree of the Ottoman Empire of December 16, 1918 the party leaders “Unification and Progress“ and the leading figures of the Turkish government Talaat, Enver, Nazim, Dzhemal, Bekhaetdin Shakir and others prosecuted on a charge of involvement of Turkey in war, the organizations of Genocide of Armenians and were in absentia sentenced to death.
The IX congress which took place in the fall of 1919 in Yerevan Dashnaktsutyun made the decision to carry out sentences concerning leaders a mladoturok. 650 names of performers and helpers of Genocide were considered, 41 main responsible is selected.
For implementation of the operation “Nemezis“ were formed Responsible body (the head - the envoy of the Republic of Armenia in the USA Armen Garo) and Special fund (the head - Shaan Satchaklyan).
Operational management of operation and its material security was entrusted Sciaana Natali and to Grigor Merzhanov.
Collection of information for detection of criminals was carried out under the leadership of the Rook of Papazyan who managed to get under the guise of the Turkish student into the highest emigrant circles a mladoturok.
The operation “Nemezis“ was carefully prepared and differed in high efficiency. During its implementation any casual person did not suffer. Groups of avengers as a part of 3 - 5 people carried out shadowing the specific criminal, and then one, sometimes 2 - 3 avengers carried out a sentence concerning leaders a mladoturok, as a rule, accompanied with personal bodyguards.
Editorial offices of Chakatamart newspapers (Constantinople) and “Droshak“ (Boston) were the main organizational centers of the operation “Nemezis“.
During punitive operation “In N e m e z and with“ were made all planned acts of punishment, including:
on March 15, 1921 - Sogomon Teyleryan shot the former Minister of Internal Affairs of Turkey Talaat in Berlin. The court which took place in June, 1921 in Berlin, acquitted Teyleryan.
On December 6, 1921 - Arshavir Shirakyan killed in Rome the former head of the first office Said Halim`s mladoturok - the pasha.
On April 17, 1922 - Arshavir Shirakyan and Aram Erkanyan liquidated in Berlin the former governor of Trebizond Dzhemal Azmi and the founder of the criminal organization “Teshkilatiya Makhsus“ Bekhaetdin Shakir - I plow; also one of Shakir`s security guards was killed.
Later in Tiflis is shot several months the commander-in-chief of the fourth Turkish army Kemal - the pasha.
On July 25, 1922 - in Tiflis Petros Rubbed - Pogosyan and Artashes Gevorgyan carried out a sentence concerning the former minister voyenno - naval forces of the Ottoman Empire of Dzhemal. The organization of a fair revenge took part Zareh Melik - Shakhnazaryan and Stepan Tsagikyan.
Avengers tracked down also the former Minister of War of Turkey Enver, but he managed to move from Germany through Baku to Central Asia. Here Enver headed the basmatch movement, and in 1922 was killed in Turkistan by the commander of Red Army Akop Melkumov. It is known that Melkumov perceived Enver`s elimination as continuation of the operation “Nemezis“.
Nazim, the former secretary general of party a mladoturok was not tracked down by the Armenian avengers. Several years later after escape to Germany he came back to Turkey, made an unfortunate attempt of attempt at Ataturk what he was executed for.
Besides a mladoturok, the Armenian national avengers liquidated a number of the figures of the musavatistsky government of Azerbaijan guilty of the organization of slaughter of Armenians of Baku in September, 1918.
May, 1920 - is shot Usubbekov (Yusifbeyli) Nasib Beck Yusif Oglou - the minister of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
On June 19, 1920 - Aram Erkanyan and Misak Grigoryan at Erivanskaya Square in Tiflis killed being the prime minister - the minister of Azerbaijan Fatali khan Hoysky.
On July 19, 1920 - the vice-chairman of parliament of AZD Hasan - Beck Meshedi Guseyn Oglou Agayev is shot.
On July 19, 1921 - Misak Torlakyan liquidated in Constantinople the former Minister of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan Bekhbud of the khan Dzhivanshir - the organizer of slaughter of Armenians in Shushi.
NATIONAL ARMENIAN AVENGERS.
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of ShAAN of NATALI (1884 - 1983) (AKOP RUBBED - AKOPYaN)
Socially - the politician, the writer. Member of HARPS Dashnaktsutyun. Perperyan in Constantinople graduated from school, then studied at the Boston university. Was a member of “The special commission“ on elimination of responsible for Genocide of Armenians and one of the main organizers of the operation “Nemezis“. Is the author of such works as “Tyurkizm from Ankara to Baku and the Turkish orientation“, “New addition: “As“ and “Why“ Aleksandropolsky contract“, etc. Having located in the USA, Natali actively participated in socially - political life of a local Armenian community, edited the Armenian newspapers. Author of a number of works of art and translations.
* SOGOMON TEYLERYAN (1896 - 1960)
Sogomon Teyleryan was born
in Pakarishe. Member of HARPS Dashnaktsutyun. In 1912 Kedronakan in Erznk graduated from school, for continuation of study went to Europe, but from the beginning of World War I returned to Armenia. Entered field army, battled to Andranik`s regiment. In 1918 it was wounded, some time was in Tiflis, then in the North Caucasus. In 1919 went to Istanbul. Within the operation “Nemezis“, having visited in the wake of Talaat in a number of the countries, Teyleryan at last killed him in Berlin (on March 15, 1921). The trial of Teyleryan which took place in June, 1921 in Berlin turned in essence into trial of organizers of genocide - executioners of the Armenian people. Under pressure of the progressive public of Europe Teyleryan was acquitted. Died in San - Frantsisko (USA).
ARAM ERKANYAN (1898 - 1934)
Erkanyan Aram, the figure Armenian national - liberation movement. Member of HARPS Dashnaktsutyun. Got an education in the homeland, in Karina. During Genocide of Armenians of 1915 was in Karina, with the Russian troops left to the Caucasus. In 1917 joined the ranks of the Armenian volunteers, then consisted in quartermaster service of the Russian army. Participant of Bashaparansky battle (May, 1918).
Within the operation “Nemezis“, together with other Armenian avenger Arshavir Shirakyan, tracked down and on April 17, 1921 killed mladoturetsky figures Bekhaetdin Shakir and Dzhemal Azmi in Berlin. In the next years lived in Romania, then in Argentina. Author of memoirs.
GRIGOR MERZHANOV (1880-?)
The figure Armenian national - liberation movement. Party member Dashnaktsutyun. In Geneva specialized in area of production of explosives. In 1905 was in the Caucasus, took part in armyano - the Tatar collisions, then moved to Turkey. During deportation and Genocide of Armenians, it was arrested by the Turkish authorities, but ran from prison. In 1916 - 1918 served in the Bulgarian army. One of organizers of the operation “Nemezis“. In December, 1921 took part in an act of terrorism against Said Halim - one of main organizers of Genocide of Armenians of 1915. After that, having stopped political activity, located in Paris. Author of work (“My will“ 1972).
* MISAK TORLAKYAN (1890 - 1968)
Misak Torlakyan was born
in 1890 in the village of Kyushan of the Trapezundsky vilayet in the peasant`s family. Member of HARPS Dashnaktsutyun. Graduated from local school and took part in liberating fight against Turks.
By the beginning 1 - y World war entered army of Russia and as a part of one of the Armenian regiments with fights reached Trebizond. It was awarded by a cross and it is appointed platoon. After retreat of the imperial army caused by October revolution of 1917, ordering the group, with fights reached East Armenia and took part in protection of borders and independence of the Republic of Armenia.
Participated in defeat of the Turkish army near Sardarapat. Held various military positions in the Armenian army.
Was one of performers of the operation “Nemezis“ as a part of Constantinople group together with Arutyun Arutyunyan and Ervand Fundukyan. According to information received, one of responsible for the Armenian riots to Baku (September, 1918) hid in Constantinople - the Minister of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan of Bekhbut khan Dzhivanshir behind whom supervision was established. On July 19, 1921 the sentence was carried out.
Torlakyan who Appeared before justice, on October 20, after listening of testimonies of witnesses and acquaintance with materials about riots in Baku by the British court was not recognized responsible for the actions and in a month is turned out to Greece.
Having lodged in Europe, was engaged in public and political work of internal life of the Armenian diaspora. Was in a direct connection with Garegin Nzhde, Alexander Hatisyan, Gayk Asatryan and the general Dro.
During 2 - y World war together with Dro and Nzhde took part in formation of the Armenian combat units as a part of Wehrmacht. Directed secret-service and diversionno - prospecting divisions of the Armenian legion.
Performed personally operation and capture of classified documents of the Turkish command concerning plans of distribution of a pantyurkizm and capture of the Caucasus. The evidence produced to Rosenberg seized in Turkey served as the reason of mistrust of the Reich and disappointment in Turkey as ally then the management of the Reich refused use of the Turkish army in the Caucasus.
For brilliantly performed operation the captain Misak Torlakyan and many other intelligence agents were awarded and raised in ranks. At the end of war it appeared in the American occupational zone and it was released from prison as not committed war crimes. Lived in Germany and then moved to America.
ARTASHES GEVORGYAN (1894 - 1937)
Member of HARPS Dashnaktsutyun. In 1916, together with the brother Torgom, entered Andranik`s group and took part in all his actions.
On July 25, 1922 in Tiflis, together with Petros Rubbed - Pogosyan, and also Stepan Tsagikyan Dzhemal - the pasha who was killed made attempt at one of the main responsible for Genocide of Armenians. Since 1924 lived in Yerevan, worked in the Soviet establishments. In 1936 it was arrested and it is soon shot. It is posthumously rehabilitated.
STEPAN TSAGIKYAN (1886-?)
Member of HARPS Dashnaktsutyun. Studied in Trebizond. Since young years entered liberation movement. During World War I battled on the Caucasian front as a part of the First Armenian voluntary regiment. Within the operation “Nemezis“, on July 25, 1922 in Tiflis Tsagikyan took part (together with A. Gevorgyan and P. Ter - Pogosyan) in attempt at one of the main responsible for Genocide of Armenians Dzhemal - the pasha who was killed. Circumstances of further life and S. Tsagikyan`s death are unknown. According to some information, he was arrested and died in exile in the USSR.
general MELKUMOV of AKOP ARSHAKOVICH (12. 12. 1885 - 03. 07. 1962)
Was born on December 12, 1885 in the village of Herkhan of the Martuninsky Region of Nagorno-Karabakh.
B is called up 1907 for military service. Participated in 1 - y to world war.
Ended an intensive course of cavalry school, was the chief of team in a cavalry division.
After October revolution 1917 took part in defeat of kaledinsky counter-revolutionary rebellion.
C of 1918 - in the Soviet Army.
Since summer of 1918 - the commander 1 - go the Moscow cavalry regiment which as a part of 12 - y divisions 8 - y armies battled on the Voronezh site of the Southern front.
Since the end of 1919 - the commander 1 - y crews 1 - y the Turkistan division of the Turkistan front. The crew led by Melkumov participated in liberation of Bukhara from counterrevolution.
C September, 1920 - the commander 2 - y crews 3 - y the Turkistan cavalry division.
In 1920 - 1923 participated in defeat of gangs of basmatches.
In February, 1921 - cavalry crew under its command seized an important position of the opponent, then, safely pursuing it, released Denau and Yurchi for what it was awarded the order the Red Banner.
For the fighting differences shown during the Gissar expedition in 1921, and defeat of a gang of Enverpasha is awarded the order by the second the Red Banner.
B ended 1924 the High academic courses.
In June, 1924 - is appointed by the commander 8 - y otd. kav. The Turkistan crew in Khwarezm.
In 1924 - 1931 the crew under its management liquidated the basmatch movement remains in Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.
B - graduated 1934 from Military academy of the name M. B. Frunze.
In 1934 - 1937 - the assistant to the commander (1935), the divisional commander of troops of the Central Asian military district.
GURGEN YANIKYAN (on December 24, 1895, Erzurum - on March 27, 1984, the USA)
- the American engineer, the writer, the national Armenian avenger.
Studied as the engineer at the Moscow university, then emigrated to the USA.
On January 27, 1973 78 - summer Gurgen Yanikyan invited in Baltimore hotel in Santa - Barbara the Turkish consul general in Los - Mehmet Baydur`s Andzheles and vice-the consul Bakhadur Demir, having promised them to donate the Turkish government a work of art then took out the gun “Lugger“ and discharged it in diplomats.
In July, 1973 Gurgen Yanikyan was sentenced to life imprisonment. In 1984 it was released from prison.