The Armenian business in Baku of
Armenians developed broad economic, trade and construction activity in Baku. Especially they were allocated in the field of the petroindustry. From 1850 to 1854 tiflissky merchants Kukudzhanyan, Babanasyan, the general Ter - Ghukasyan, and further Ovannes Mirzoyan were the largest contractors of Baku. The first industrial petrowell of Baku which earned in 1869 belonged to O. Mirzoyan.
According to official figures 1846 all trade of Transcaucasia with Russia was in hands at Armenians and made 5 534 600 rubles. Representatives of the Armenian capital were constantly attracted by new spheres of business.
As a result of the tender announced by the government in 1872 owners of petrowells of steel of 12 Russians and 11 Armenian businessmen (O. Mirzoyan, G. Lianosyan, etc.) and also one Armenian association under the name “Accomplice“ which founders were Bogdan Dolukhanyan and Minas Kachkachyan.
In 1878 shushinets Samvel Bagiryan and Arutyun Madatsyan, having united with Bruno de Burom, base petroindustrial and Caspian Commonwealth trading company which in 1888 completely passed to brothers Gukasyanam and Ovannesu Ter - to Markosyan.
Alexander Mantashyan who in the petroindustry held big authority was the outstanding representative of the Armenian businessmen of Baku. In February, 1894 between the Armenian group of A. Mantashyan and “Association of the Baku owners of kerosene plants“ the agreement under which the Armenian businessmen had an opportunity freely to enter the international market was signed.
By situation for 1902 136 enterprises operating in Baku and in adjacent areas extracted 636 528 852 poods of oil, from them 24 leading − firms; 521 million poods. From these 24 companies 13 were Armenian and extracted 203 million poods of oil, i.e. 39% of total amount.
By situation for 1907 from 448 million poods of oil made in Baku, 54,4%, and in 1917 from 168 million poods of oil of 53% of total amount were got by the Armenian companies.
At the end of the 19th century a number of the new Armenian companies was for a short time formed. Thanks to the knowledge and energy the Armenian businessmen got a great influence, playing an important role in economic development of all area. “Mirzoyan and brothers“, “Mantashyan and companions“, “Aragats“, “Araks“, “Gukasova`s Brothers“, “Liasonov and companions“, “Aramazd“, “Ararat“, “Masis“, “Astkhik“, “Syunik“, “Aralo - Caspian“ and tens of other companies belonging to Armenians were engaged in the petroindustry and had own means of transportation, including sea. In total in 1912 in Baku there were 66 shipowners, among them there are companies and private owners, 14 of which were Armenians and had 24 ships. Akop and Ovannes Avetyany (“Menastan“), Lake. Adamyan (“Vagan“), “The Armenian steamship company“ (“Ashot Erkat“, “Amasiya“), “Volga Company“ (“Artsiv Vaspurakani“), “Caspian torgovo - the industrial company“ (“Vaspurakan“), etc. Even Azerbaijanians called the ships the Armenian names, for example, Ashurbekov and Dzhafarov`s ship was called “Avetik“, Babashiyeva − “Masis“, Kuliyeva − “Arshak“, Mamedova − “Ararat“.
The Armenian businessman Mr. Lianozyan was considered as the largest businessman who is engaged in fishery and seafood. Before World War I its fishing vessels were equipped with the best appliances. Venetsov`s family also played a huge role in fishery development. In the field of trade and production of the food it should be noted one feature: each Armenian attracted to the relatives, thus business became national uniform.
It should be noted that Armenians were not only are involved in economic activity, but also created the technical base promoting business development.
41 plants were engaged in production of boring installations and pipes, 19 of them were Armenian. 194 mechanical workshops were involved in petroproduction, Armenians were owners 95 of them.
In 1904 in Baku there were two tobacco plants: one of them belonged to brothers Mirzabekyan, another - to Sargis Karagozyan and Avet Arakelyantsu. In 1914 in the territory of modern Azerbaijan there were seven tobacco plants, and all of them belonged to Armenians.
In 1891 brothers Piliposyants opened first and the chocolate factory, only in the Caucasus. The same year A. Haradzhyan opened the first factory of mirrors. The plant of natural fruit juice and mineral waters Melik - Gulambaryana was the only thing in Transcaucasia also.
For a solution of the problem of drinking water the merchant M. Saakian in the mouth of the Kura River constructed a number of reservoirs, carried out underground pipes, even supplied the city with water which brought the employed ships.
“Torgovo - the industrial Zakaspiysky organization“ was the indisputable leader in manufactory trade: the president is S. Ter - Oganyan, board members − N. Sarukhanyan, Ov. Tumanyan, J. Ter - Israyelyan, G. Shkhyants. Armenians had considerable weight in production and processing of silk and cotton. In 1907 from 154 manufactory enterprises of Baku 89 belonged to Armenians. The largest trading house of the city belonged to brothers Tumanyan.
In a financial and banking system of Baku Armenians also played a large role. In 1875 A. Tavrizyan, M. Mamikonyan, subsequently brothers Ayvazyan were directors of “The organization of the mutual loan“. In 1902 in Baku one more financial institution - city credit institution which president of board was a Russian, and directors Armenians - A. Ayvazyan, A. Khan - Agyan was created. Notes of the Baku authorities on which armyanoyazychny inscriptions met remained.
Thus, Armenians of Baku at the end of XIX and at the beginning of the 20th centuries led full life, took the advanced positions in production of oil, trade, in various industries, and also in financial and bank spheres.
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