Damage as cultural and medical phenomenon.
For a start I will quote the “damage signs“ which are widely published in the Internet:
“ the Damage induced at the person :
- if at the woman on a face is pigmentary spots, and analyses good
- if the woman cannot become pregnant, and from the medical point of view everything is all right of
- if the young strong woman has no periods, constant delays or very poor allocations
- if without the reasons you quickly grow thin (dry) or grow stout (carries)
- if the girl meets guys, but cannot marry
- if doctors make different diagnoses, but there are no results of treatment
- if you do not like to watch at yourself in a mirror
- if one pupil more than another or pupils run
- if at you is a long breakdown, is not present the desire to move, work and in general to live
-“ a black strip“ in life
- if in the house many cockroaches or ants, and at neighbors is not present
- during rest or a dream to you come dirty
- you is not loved by pets. “
- - What, however, free treatment of such transcultural concept as “damage“. And it is only small part of “signs“ which wish to find at the trustful person - “hereditary healers“ and “clairvoyants“. Among others - “damage signs“ by car, the apartment, a country house, business, the Swiss bank, an oil derrick, the gold mine etc.
meanwhile, ethnographers give absolutely concrete description of “damage“ - - what the phenomenon, what its reasons, manifestations and ways of counteraction is. There is no need to invent “thousands of ceremonies and methods of the highest altar magic“ - - the people already “invented“ everything and tested on itself.
“Since the most ancient times people believed that in the person the demon can be installed. Such unfortunate as if forks: speaks from himself, on behalf of the demon living in it, or to it there are attacks during which he shouts on - animal, quarrels, blasphemes. In Russia and in east Belarus such frenzied called klikusham, and most often it were women, and was considered that klikush do not take out Christian symbols, cannot approach a participle.
… The name of an illness the hysterics, a klikota, a klikusha, a klikotny illness went from what the patient during an attack “klicht“ by different voices, “calls“ a name of the person who spoiled it. If the woman it is a klikusha, a klikotnitsa, an ikotnitsa; if man miryak. Klikush call still igreets, they are played by a demon, and in the Russian North the illness can be called a hiccups, an ikotka as the attack often begins a strong hiccups.
... An evil ghost, him call an ikovka, soloveyko, the hiccups, usually gets into the person through a mouth. After exile from the person or after its smertizly the spirit can live about forty days out of a human body, sitting on Coca or a fence and looking after to itself the new victim. Often it is shown in the form of a small animal or an insect: rats, mice, sparrow, frog, fly.
... The sorcerer able to send a hysterics is called an ikotnik , say about it that he can “spread a hiccups“, and as for some term, and for the rest of life (parallels with “the coding from alcoholism“ arise at once). The sorcerer can transmit damage through any small subject or an insect (a fly, a bug) - - the person who incidentally swallowed an insect with drink or food becomes klikushy.
… Klikusha in unconsciousness fights about the earth, laughs loudly, shouts at different voices, imitating shouts of animals: barks, cackles, neighs, mews, cries out a name of the one who spoiled it, calling him “father“, “father“, or «the mother“ if the woman spoiled. The evil ghost sitting in a klikusha speaks about himself in a masculine gender even if the klikusha-female, sometimes - in the third party (“the ikotochka answers“ instead of “I answer“), reports the name and an origin: “Ya-Sazon - the drowned man, I want to take a walk in you“, and also a name of the one who sent it and for what time. Usually the demon proves during reading the Gospel, prayers, a participle. At this time he begins to shout: “It is time for me to leave it whether long to me to sit here“, “I will leave, I will leave, I will leave! You strangled me, prosphoras crushed, an incense, the old woman, starved!“
… Here a modern conversation recording of the ethnographer with the woman in whom “the hiccups sits“. The ethnographer, the hostess - an ikotnitsa and her hiccups participate in conversation:
“On Saturday in a bath descended, here and began! As I die. Came from a bath - drank nothing, did not eat. To me the mouth was unclenched, poured into a mouth from an icon water. After that I zaukhat. Zaukhala a hiccups, crashed the whole year. Year did not work, was as coal, black. Doctors did not begin to recognize this my illness. To old women carried - anywhere. Will give-drank water and that was whispered, I do not know. As on all village. Then did not speak - only crashed. Began to tell years eight - that wants, will tell. To the doctor went, did not treat him, here and made it. He arrived, told. And now the hiccups crashes, uses foul language that got speaks. When I go - aside I sit, it is inconvenient before the people.
Ethnographer: How old are you?
- - Hiccups: To it? Sixty one-ikotochka answers. Deliver to it by sight that it all life on the road was.
- - Hiccups: Da Anna of Ivanovn.
Ethnographer: Well, we will let out a hiccups on the road better or there - we will drive into the tape recorder.
Hiccups: Well, an ikotochka, here you were also okastrirovat. Oh, the ikotochka will be cleaned.
Ethnographer: Yes, it will also be good.
Hiccups: It will not disturb, to be stirred.
Hostess: I live - all the same that I suffer …“
… During attacks of a klikush finds out such force that several men are not able to keep it. She feels unclear all body pain, weakness, nausea, disgust for food or, on the contrary, a pathological addiction to certain types of food which needs to be satisfied “to cajole“ a demon.
... Klikusha possesses clairvoyance, ability to predict future. To learn from it something, it is necessary to tell the name of that demon who in it sits then the klikusha begins to fight, shout, and falls then dead. It is considered that at this time the demon ransacks all over the world, looking for the required data then comes back to a body of a klikusha and begins to tell.
... To cure klikushu-means to expel from it an evil spirit that is feasible only to the few sorcerers and priests. It is important to learn a name of the sorcerer who spoiled a klikusha. If she does not “vyklikivat“ his name, about it it is asked through the opened door by foreign women, having put on a klikusha a collar and having brought to a threshold, having shrouded it in a bell rope, having hung up it on a breast the lock with a key. During an attack cover sick with an easter cloth, give to drink the water consecrated on the Epiphany or the kvass prepared in one day take a klikusha for a little finger of the left hand and say Sunday and deiparous prayers, smoke an incense from three parties, leaving free pass to doors to etch outside of the demon who is in the patient, put on it a collar from a sweaty horse, whip on it and speak: “I whip, I whip - a demon a vykhleshcha“.“
That`s it also should call the phenomenon described above - “damage“.
From the medical point of view, these descriptions correspond to to dissotsiativny (conversion) frustration which treat:
- - dissotsiativny amnesia;
- - dissotsiativny fugue;
- - dissotsiativny stupor;
- - dissotsiativny trance and condition of obsession;
- - dissotsiativny disorders of the movements;
- - dissotsiativny anesthesia and loss of sensitivity;
- - Ganzer`s syndrome;
- - frustration of the multiple personality.
Earlier, these diseases called “hysterical“ then the association-klikusha strongly was established, “hysteric woman“ means.
Actually, this person had a sharp mental trauma which dissociated (split) the identity of the person, having created the independent subidentity of the patient - “demon“.
Thus, the concept “damage“ represents a psychopathological phenomenon, nothing in common (except the name) having with horror stories “about a black hand“ and children`s fairy tales by means of which businessmen “from magic“ try to regress consciousness of the trustful person on the pagan level of thinking and perception.
The used literature:
1. Levkiyevskaya E. “Myths of the Russian people“, 2003.
2. Mental disorders and frustration of behavior (F00 - F99), (A class 5 MKB - 10, adapted for use in R. F.) / Under the general edition of Kazakovtsev B. A., Gollanda V. B., 2003
3. Tarabrina N. V. Psychology of a post-traumatic stress: Theory and practice., 2009.