How to you a bath on - black?
the chronicle “Story of Temporary Years“ included a legend of travel (about 11 century) the preacher Andrey on Slavic lands. It went up Dnieper and came to those places where there is Novgorod now, from there went to Varangians. Having returned to Rome, the preacher told: “ Surprising was seen by me in the Slavic earth on the way here. Saw baths wooden, and will kindle them until red, both will undress and will be nude, and will have a shower bath kvass tanning, and young people will lift on themselves rods and beat themselves, and before will finish themselves that will hardly get out, slightly live, and will have a shower bath water ice cold, and only this way will recover. Also create it any day, not tormented with anybody, but torment themselves, and that make ablution to themselves, but not torture “.
The story about a bath was placed in “Story“ with great thought for edification of descendants. In it it is said that the educated foreigners, having visited Russia, were delighted by that, “as Slavs everywhere wash and whipped“, “observing purity corporal“.
The conclusion the inquisitive foreigner apprehended a Slavic bath as a miracle, nevertheless, his story is truthful and exact. To it more than one thousand years. Novgorodians did not describe a bath in those days only because for them it was usual.
Since the earliest time up to our days the kurny bath (that is burning on - black, without chimney) did not undergo serious changes. She successfully washes to this day, treats and pleases people in Russia.
It is not necessary to think that our ancestors were lazy and inept dirty creatures and did not guess to put a pipe. There were also baths on - white, with a chimney. Matter in another.
It is not necessary to be afraid of a soot in a bath on - black, in it only walls and a ceiling are smoked generally, and benches and regiments are not shrouded in a smoke and remain pure. For a full guarantee it is enough to pour over them water. If to use only birch or aspen firewood, then at their combustion not enough soot is formed. The soot which is available in a bath is useful that it absorbs all fetid odors, soot literally disinfects the room of a steam room.
The bath on - black, without pipe, has advantages before a bath on - white at which for an exit of a smoke the pipe is removed. The bath on - black is simpler and cheaper in construction, it is not necessary to remove a pipe through wooden designs and to follow at the same time strict fire safety regulations. Bath walls on - black quicker and stronger get warm as heat from an oven - Kamenka, having passed through stones, does not go broke, warming this world, and spreads indoors and everything warms up. Firewood for such bath, especially for buried, it is necessary much less, it is necessary to heat a bath on - black not since morning as white, and only two - three hours.
In a bath on - black also more pleasant smells from the timbered walls, a ceiling, fir-tree fir twigs and herbs scattered in advance are felt much stronger; air in it is literally saturated aroma. In a bath on white smells and aromas appear only when the broom is tired or will splash on the heated stones broth of herbs.
The most important in a bath on - black is Kamenka, heat store. As a rule, it was placed on the left side from an entrance from a waiting room. It occupied slightly less than a quarter of a sweating room. For Kamenka chose certain stones, rounded as a glacier. Chipped stones of blue color were avoided, they let out waste. Forward part of Kamenka, the mouth or a forehead, put from three stones - troyekamen. Behind it in a form of an egg shell spread a fire chamber. To make an arch over a fire chamber - business difficult: boulders with a diameter no more than 15 - 20 cm stacked so that they got jammed each other and did not fail in a fire chamber. Over a dome put stones of smaller diameter, and over them pebbles from egg to sparrow were filled. Thickness of walls and a dome of 75 cm, height - 1 m 10 cm. The flame heated evenly and economically all parts of Kamenka. The smoke passed between stones as through a sieve, and soot burned down in a dome laying.
In a row with Kamenka arranged shelves so that the person sitting on it did not touch by the ceiling head, and on width so that two could lay down, without constraining each other. Opposite to a regiment the aperture in a wall for a double glazing, and opposite to Kamenka - chicken pox for an exit of a smoke and adjustment of temperature by means of a latch was cut through. To the right of an exit there were two tubs: in a corner - for hot water, chicken poxes - for cold are lower. From tubs along a wall, and also along a sidewall to a regiment there was a bench - runduk. Before a regiment - a step. By all means there was also a mobile bench.
Warming up of Kamenka in winter time lasted till three o`clock, sometimes more. At this time the bathhouse attendant filled both tubs with water and put on the heated coals smooth, without cracks stones. They were heated until red - “will kindle them until red“. By this time the smoke already all left a bath through chicken pox and the opened doors. The bathhouse attendant two wet wooden rakes snatched out from a fire chamber of a kalenysha and one by one lowered in a tub. In such a way water heated up almost to boiling. From a fire chamber in order to avoid waste absolutely removed coals and ashes. After that the bathhouse attendant the old steamed-out broom swept off a ceiling and walls, poured hot water of a bench, densely blocked chicken pox a latch and closed a door, having propped up its batagy. So the bath was stood not less than an hour. Warmly evenly spread on all room, a floor got warm, waste disappeared.
Heated a bath birch or alder firewood. The smoke from birch firewood contains tar. It settles on a ceiling and on logs of walls, disinfecting and covering them as if with a black brilliant varnish. And in traditional medicine tar, as we know, not only horses are treated.
Temperature reaching to 90 ° above a smoke with traces of tar disinfected clothes that, undoubtedly, created a barrier to distribution of infectious diseases. So the bath served also as sanitary point.
Birch brooms, “young rods“, made in June on each family not less than 35 couples. The leaf of a birch did not harden at this time yet, the break of rods and leaves exhale fragrant juice which in the steamed-out look promotes then the prevention of diseases. A broom took a steam bath only once. Used did not throw out, them swept the floors.
For the present in a bath is not present to steam, all washed, sometimes with lye, being pounded by basts. After that gave steam, plesky to Kamenka kvass. Heat from it rose easy, not burning, with a sourish smell of hot bread. The Reverend Andrey defined it as “will have a shower bath kvass tanning“, but it was only the smell of grain kvass similar to a smell well carried.
The steamed-out “young rods“, that is birch leaves, at high temperature eliminated also skin diseases - fungi and eczemas. And massage is useful to health.
Often two men, having put on that did not burn down, on mitten hands, and on the cap heads that the heads did not overheat, got on shelves and serially began “to whip“ each other, “to lift on itself rods young and to beat itself“. Parilshchiki was published by enthusiastic exclamations “oh“, “ah“, “ooh“ and asked the one who was below, to strike still a heat. So they went to self-forgetfulness and “before will finish themselves that will hardly get out, slightly live“. At last there came such moment that heat became unbearable, and then they broke from a regiment, ran out from a bath, rushed to snow snowdrifts in the winter or to the small river in the summer “and only this way will recover“. The author of the narration about a Slavic bath accepted there was it for torture, but the conclusion was drawn by full: “and that make ablution to themselves, but not torture“. Stay in snow or in the small river after a sweating room was allowed short, otherwise it could turn back cold.
The boiling samovar with a teapot on a ring, brewing tea or a curative grass - out of need was ready to an exit of men from a bath. After a plentiful potovydeleniye, emission with it harmful salts and slags, after a thermal shake-up in an interval nearly of 100 degrees the organism demands, is eager for water. Tea drinking after a bath - obligatory ritual, at the northerner a bath without tea - without banning. The kind short glass of juniper tincture was allowed men, it had a snack the hrebtiny salted cod or a fresh-salted salmon with rye or barley bread. To sleep went to bed early (the youth, of course, ran on a sit-round gathering), slept without restriction, nearly till a Sunday lunch. And since Monday all week could perform the most hard work in any icy cold: to cut the wood, to drag logs.
It should be noted that the bath served also as a comprehensive clinic. At the slightest fever, cold, colic pains in a breast, an ache in joints and a waist it came to the rescue. Treatment by heat (a modern hyperthermia) was widespread from the Kola Peninsula to Chukotka everywhere and was applied with great success. There were among elderly people of a staritsa also aged men who were able to stop illnesses by means of massage and a broom, knew when and how to put on a breast and a waist krovesosny pots - the banks which are specially made for this purpose by potters.
A bath for the Russian person - both a purgatory, and a harbinger of a holiday, health and rest!