What can the blood droplet tell about you?
All of us should make tests. Undoubtedly, it is interesting to everyone that is meant by the results ciphered on forms. And in general, how many types of researches it is possible to carry out with a usual drop of blood?
The most widespread inspection - the general blood test . It gives information on reaction of an organism to action of external and internal factors. The majority of indicators receive on automatic hematologic analyzers. Determine concentration of hemoglobin, quantity of erythrocytes and speed of their subsidence, and also the maintenance of leukocytes, platelets by them. If necessary check fibrillation time.
Gematokrit is the relation of volume of erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes to the volume of other part of blood (plasma), normal there have to be 45 - 52% for men, and 37 - 48% for women. Above - means, the organism lacks water, problems with kidneys and others are possible, norms are lower - the person had bleeding or in its organism, owing to an illness, new blood cells are formed insufficiently.
Hemoglobin (HGB) - a red pigment of blood. Norm of 120 - 140 g/l. He transfers oxygen from lungs to fabrics and separate bodies, and carbon dioxide - in the opposite direction. Reduction of its content in blood is observed at anemia and blood losses.
Erythrocytes (RBC) - red blood cells. They are formed in marrow. It is normal of them 3,7 - 4,7õ10 12 . If it is not enough of them, it can speak about an anemia (anemia) or loss of blood. If there is too much - about new growths, violations of hormonal balance and other troubles. Increase of the speed of subsidence of erythrocytes (SSE) indicates inflammatory process in an organism. This indicator has to be within 2 - 15 mm/h.
Leukocytes (WBC) - white blood cells, they in the answer for fight of an organism against infections, absorb the died-off cages and bacteria and develop antibodies. If in an organism an order, leukocytes has to be 4 - 9õ10 9 . Increase in their quantity is observed at infectious diseases, and sharp changes can hint at an oncological disease.
On platelets (PLT) is judged coagulability of blood. Their norm of 180 - 320õ10 9 , can indicate a shortcoming an immunological disease, surplus - on tendency to formation of blood clots.
Definition of biochemical indicators - one more widespread type of diagnostics. The biochemical analysis displays a condition of exchange processes in an organism (carbohydrate, proteinaceous, fatty, electrolytic). Each of these processes depends on work of certain systems and bodies therefore this research gives data on them. At some diseases this analysis - main at statement of the diagnosis.
Glucose level usually testifies to activity of a pancreas, adrenal glands, a liver, a hypophysis. It is an indicator of a carbohydrate exchange. Its norm of 3,5 - 6,5 mol/l. Low content in blood of glucose happens at irregular or bad food, hormonal diseases. Raised - forces to suspect diabetes.
Protein in blood decreases at deterioration in work of kidneys, a liver, malnutrition. A lot of protein in blood is observed at burns, inflammatory processes, acute infectious diseases. A squirrel in liter of blood there have to be 60 - 80 g. Define also protein components to which globulins and albumine belong. So, a beta - globulins change the quantity at violations of a fatty exchange.
Bilirubin helps to find out how bilious channels and a liver work. It there have to be no more than 20,5 mol/l. Increase in its contents can testify to shortcomings of functioning of these bodies or to violations in the rate of decay of erythrocytes.
It is known that can provoke atherosclerosis the cholesterol level increased by - more than 6,7 millimolya to blood liter. But also its shortcoming - less than 2,6 millimol/l, harms too: it does not allow to be formed to some hormones and bilious acids. Triglyceride level also testifies to tendency to atherosclerosis. It decreases at a vegetarian diet and can raise at consumption of a large amount of animal fats. Determine also the content in blood of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chlorine.
The blood drop, of course, provides information and on a blood type and a Rhesus factor . In the world about 15% of people with a negative Rhesus factor. And the fact that at them immunity, according to experts, just an invention is weaker than others. The most rare - the IV group with a negative Rhesus factor. Physicians, joking, call it blue blood. On average men have 5,2 l of blood and women have 3,9 l.
Also various bacteriological researches are conducted.
Immunogramma - verification of antibodies - immunoglobulins on which protection of an organism against infections depends. Immunofermental research finds syphilis, hepatitis, HIV, a rubella, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, clamidiosis, a cytomegalovirus. There are markers of stomach ulcer, osteoporosis, autoimmune and oncological diseases. There are tests for detection of anemia (establish the level of iron, vitamins, folic acid).
Koagulogramma checks violation of coagulability of blood. By birth define also hormonal range: nearly thirty hormones. Women need to come to such inspection in the certain day of a menstrual cycle appointed by the doctor. If to be mistaken at least for days, results will not be reliable. All know also what by birth can be defined, the woman or not and as the fruit develops is pregnant.
As experts convince, it is important that the patient followed the simple rules, otherwise results will be inexact. All blood tests carry out on an empty stomach - that is between meal and blood donation there have to pass not less than twelve hours. It is the day before better to exclude fried and greasy food, and also alcohol from a diet. Water can be drunk. Too it is necessary to forget about cigarettes at least several hours prior to the analysis.
It is not necessary to do this day and morning exercises as loading (intellectual also) influences results, especially determination of level of glucose. Therefore it is better to transfer the solution of complex problems. In a week it is necessary to cease to take medicine, except vital and to finish physiotherapeutic procedures. And the emotional state and mood can affect result. Therefore it is recommended before coming into a blood donation office, to have a rest in the foyer, to relax and be adjusted on an optimistical harmony.
Today physicians try to refuse some standards and stereotypes at inspection. Individual indicators of the healthy person sometimes deviate average standards. Many parameters depend on age, sex, the postponed diseases, immunity. And therefore do not try to decipher data of analyses even - correctly to understand that “the drop of your blood“, in power only speaks about you to the expert.