Francisco Gomez de Quevedo. What century image, exact and truthful?
Nothing is new under the moon, nothing is old. Those who consider that badly (well) right now or it was (badly good) before or not, worse were (better) before before, at all not and before before before - and smoothly through centuries, forget that at all times there were dreamers - idealists, in all centuries there were satirists. And they constantly convicted something, namely - human defects and ulcers of society. Satirists come and leave, and defects with ulcers remain.
There are a lot of departments in which I pound a little;
Honour not in chest and , but honors in honor;
Here image of a century, exact and truthful .
About what century there is a speech? It is impossible to guess.
No to the account to misers, podlipala, spendthrifts,
is More than them, than sweet words at flattery;
of Darkness of solicitors, whose cooking - honor death.
Trouble and a grief - to widows and orphans …
This year - year of France in Russia and vice versa. In anticipation of the following - years of Russia in Spain and Spain in Russia, there is a wish to write about destiny of one Spanish poet and satirist who lived, served, was imprisoned and understood everything. For internal understanding pay with disappointment, for the understanding stated out of time - prison or other troubles. In all centuries.
… Each my friend is perfidious,
Each my servant - the swindler,
brings Every way to a jungle,
Each planked footway - with a break,
Each game - with loss,
Each pancake leaves a lump …
Francisco Gomez de Quevedo was a person of extremely noble Castilian sort which went back to the ancient Spanish nobility. To be born the hidalgo is already honors and privileges for the rest of life: they were exempted from taxes (if there were enough children), could not be subjected to shameful execution - and the status was lifelong. The father Quevedo was a secretary at Maximilian II`s wife (the emperor of the Sacred Roman Empire), mother - the queen`s maid of honor. The son was given the corresponding proud and difficult name Francisco Gomez de Quevedo - and - Villegas (Francisco G ó mez de Quevedo y Santib á ñ ez Villegas).
Francisco Gomez de Quevedo - and - Villegas was born on September 14, 1580 . Since the birth it was not really healthy: completeness, clubfoot and lameness, short-sightedness. From - behind the last it all life carried eye-glasses. It is interesting that one of his names (Kevedo) in plural and means in Spanish “eye-glasses“.
In 6 years the boy was deserted, studied in Jesuit college, then - at university. Philosophy, theology, mathematics, medicine, law, Latin, Ancient Greek, Hebrew, Arab, French, Italian - education usual for those times. Returned to the yard and was engaged in literary activity: verses, prose, lampoons.
Became very intimate and was on friendly terms with the largest Spanish writers - contemporaries, they are famous and until now - Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega. Not for nothing that era is called “Golden Age“ of the Spanish culture. But Spain as the powerful power endured deep crisis. And political (earlier won countries disappeared), and economic (uncountable bankruptcies), and ideological.
… Look: former without shining with a dress.
Andalusia goes Now barefoot.
At us it is not worth a pin for overseas gold,
A are full the tribes which sent a tribute? .
(“To its Majesty to the king Philip IV“).
Quevedo`s satire was ruthless, not for nothing he said that “any kaban canines are not capable to strike to such blow as a feather “. Quevedo gradually and enemies - both in the person of inquisition, and in the person of individuals acquired. His fervor affected not only in creativity, but also in life. Itself not free from defects (the smoker, the boozer, the idler and the brawler), he kept a clear idea of honor.
Once in the Madrid church he saw how a certain man hit the woman on a face. Then he seized the offender, pulled out it on the street where they, as well as it is necessary, bared swords. Quevedo won this duel, struck the rival on the spot. But that appeared noble blood too, and the poet had to address for protection the friend duke de Ossouna.
I saw walls of my homeland:
Once unapproachable strongholds,
They collapsed and fell nowadays,
Having been tired of change of rapid days .
Thanks to the duke Francisco Gomez de Quevedo endured also rise of career. The friend became vice-the king of Sicily, the poet at him carried out various diplomatic instructions. He even managed to serve as the Minister of Finance Neapolitanskogo vice-kingdoms. After the duke appeared in disgrace and, consistently, in prison, Quevedo also falls into disgrace and he is sent in a small town.
Mixed to me with wine ink,
As a web, braided with a slander;
did not know I rest, but at the same time
Me neither rage, nor envy did not weary .
Exile was short, the poet is returned to Madrid. But satirical gift continued to prove fully. According to one version, in a refectory of the king very impudent verses of Quevedo were found, on another - there was a banal “espionage“ denunciation. It is not surprising that in 1639 Quevedo was arrested and forwarded in prison of the monastery San - Marcos - - Leon. All its books were confiscated. In an imprisonment the elderly sick person spent 4 years. After release he did not recover. Francisco Kevedo died on September 8, 1645 .
From year of birth of the Spanish poet separates us of 430 years . Whether a lot of things changed?
Today`s introduction: “you will steal a potato bag - will put, you will steal one million - will start to respect“.
… For small villainy - the strict court,
But for great - on the
chariot of the Criminal in a wreath will extol.
Klit a hut stole, and it - in a dungeon;
Menandr stole the country, but people honor Hishchenye`s
- a feat of its right hand .
About governors and a glamour:
... You see how its wreath sparkles,
As, blinding, the bagryanitsa glows?
So know, it inside - only the ashes stinking ...
And further - it is possible without analogies, so everything for some reason everything is familiar, conformable. Not only does not look antiquity, but also it is read in mass media:
… To penetrate into the law - occupation empty,
got used to trade in It you for a long time;
In articles - income items looks for a look:
of Mylae not Yason to you - a fleece golden …
(“The selling judge“).
No, 430 years are so a little, it almost yesterday. Or today .
…. A favor, selling good luck - gods,
All power - at gold that with good in contention,
Koshchun and the ignoramus - in a priestly attire, Bezumye`s
and a styazhanye - in a white toga;
Worthy executioner`s blocks - in a princely hall,
I in an utesneniya - a human grief,
of Science, mind - in disgrace and a shame,
In honor spesivets, the gas-bag poor …
(“The reasons of fall of the Roman Empire“).
Oh these poets. Even if they are representatives of the Spanish baroque. But at once you understand - this closely to yesterday, and here - day before yesterday, and about it just... Or tomorrow.
Not incidentally Francisco Gomez de Quevedo is not forgotten. It not only continues to be read. He is a hero of novels, for example, adventurous - the adventure novel “Adventures of the Captain Alatriste“ (Las aventuras del capit á n Alatriste) - the Spanish writer Arturo Perez - to Reverta, and also Eric Flint and Andrew Dennis`s fantastic novel.