Who became Homer of the Warsaw revolt? Anna Svirshchinskaya of
Warsaw revolt. For us, Russians, - one of episodes of the contemporary history. Though mind we, of course, understand that it - not just an episode, and one of the greatest tragedies of World War II. And it is not limited to the territory of the Warsaw municipal district. Or frontiers of Poland. The tragedy - it for all the tragedy. Others grief, generally, does not happen.
All so. But mind is one. And when the soul bleeds … Absolutely another. In 1957 the famous Polish military historian - the general Ezhi Kirkhmayer, wrote, meaning not only himself, but also all the compatriots: “The Warsaw revolt burns down us as an open wound“.
But Revolt - not only the tragedy. At the same time it and heroic attempt which the Polish people tried to decide the future independently. Without thinking about what was solved without them. Somewhere there, in far Tehran. High contracting parties. And this attempt allowed Poles to keep their national advantage and granted the right honestly and openly to look in the face each other: “We made everything that we could“.
History does not die together with death of her witnesses and direct participants, her creators. But in order that it occurred, it is necessary to keep not only archives with which the narrow circle of experts, as a rule, works. There has to be a national memory which is transferred from one generation to another. From ancestors - to descendants. And from those - already to their descendants. And so - indefinitely.
Earlier national it was held in folklore in remembrance. With the invention of the press it was succeeded by books. And they, as well as manuscripts, do not burn. Even if they into a fire are thrown.
The Warsaw revolt which alloyed in a uniform unseparable monolith tragic and heroic its importance for national Polish consciousness made a matter of time emergence in the Polish literature of work which emotional heat and a saturation could fully tell to the next generations held in remembrance its participants.
This time came in 1974 - m when the book of verses of Anna Svershchinskaya was issued “I built a barricade“, at once and appreciated by her contemporaries.
The famous Polish literary critic Stefan Milkovsky called “Barricade“ the lyrical epos, having drawn a direct parallel between its verses and classics of the world literature. He was not afraid to take the responsibility and to publicly tell that “in thirty years after death of our Ilium for us, as well as for Trojans, was Homer in the person of Svershchinskaya. Homer of Trojans, at last, started talking and executed eternal mission of the poet - cleared conscience of the people, having allowed us to feel a public catharsis“ :
We will mourn
hour when all began.
Hour when the first shot sounded.
we Will mourn those sixty three days
and sixty three nights of battle.
And hour, when all ended with
When into place where there lived one million people,
came emptiness one million people.
(“The last Polish revolt“) of
Of course, Svirshchinskaya`s verses - not “Illiada“. They are written not by a hexameter. And, as other Polish literary critic told, Janusz Slavinsky, “they are extraordinary ascetic, deprived by any embellishment“ . But at everything thus “I Built a Barricade“ - the epos. The most real.
Because in these verses - all Warsaw revolt. From the first till last day.
Of August 1 when according to the decision of heads of Army Revolt and to 23 thousand insurgents from whom a little more than ten percent were armed began Craiova, and they are are provided with ammunition for 2 - 3 days … The when this not fired, untrained, badly armed people managed to make, apparently, impossible - as a result of persistent four-day fights to seize the most part of Warsaw.
Yes, the majority of strategically important objects - two of three telephone exchanges, airfields, stations, bridges, - remained in hands of Germans. But enthusiasm was the main feeling of insurgents. And each of them trusted - a little more … Still slightly - slightly! And the victory, final and irrevocable, will be behind them. In a different way and cannot just be!
Especially - they are not one. Told about it also the posters stuck on all city, on each of which ran in attack of soldiers. He held the automatic machine which in reality was available well in the left hand if at one of three tens insurgents, and right - squeezed banners. Soviet, English and American. The inscription on the poster encouraged varshavyan: “We are not one!“.
And they trusted it. Hoped that here - here … Or in Warsaw the Polish parachute crew from structure of the Polish armed forces in the West will land. Or through Vistula will jerk tanks 1 - go the Belarusian front which is ordered not by someone there, and Konstantin Rokossovsky. The Pole on a nationality. He will not throw the on an arbitrariness?. Will not throw!
- Read a newspaper today, - the mechanic says, -
the whole world goes to help us,
in a week everything will come to an end, my old woman has
name-day, I invite
all house to a holiday,
- the mechanic says.
(“We will be glad“)
But parachute crew did not land. Since August 5 the Germans who received including from the Western front, a reinforcement, took the offensive and under cover of aircraft, tanks, heavy artillery began methodically - the house behind the house, - to storm the street behind the street being in the hands which rose the separate, isolated from each other sites of the city.
Sticks out of a heap of the failed walls
in the sky
gray as a wall,
a hand with five fingers.
(“After a raid“)
the Russian tanks came to the right coast of Vistula, to the bridges which are blown up by Germans, on September 14 when Hitlerites already localized revolt and with fight took the last centers of resistance in the Warsaw suburbs. In Chernyakuva and on Zholibozhe. The destiny of revolt was almost decided.
all understood that the end.
did not remain
water and forces that to look for water,
is three days old
as there is no spoon of yachnevy porridge,
stink pus and blood,
of an eye, week not sleeping,
are closed even by
on a fighting post, under firing,
the feet shuffled on channels,
are heavy as stones,
the empty gun
falls from hands.
And therefore, having heard a roar of the enemy tanks going to the next attack at dawn
was understood that it is the end.
will not beat off This attack
(“It is already the end“)
on October 2 the commander of Army of Craiova - the general Komarovsky, signed capitulation. 17 thousand insurgents who received the status of prisoners of war got in German camp. In Prushkov passed through the camp which was near Warsaw also all 550 thousand residents of the Polish capital which survived after Revolt. 60 thousand from them waited for concentration camps, 150 thousand - forced labor in Germany.
But thoughts, pain and bitterness pulsing in each Polish head were more terrible than all this: “What, really?. Really everything was vain? And 10 thousand died insurgents … In vain? And 6 thousand missing persons? Too?! And more than two hundred-thousand victims among the civilian population?.“
It goes to bondage as if drags
on itself bodies of the guys. He considers
, in a whisper considers
eyes of mothers look in it.
- Your son was killed in battle for a barricade which
is not present, in fight for the house,
which failed and broke up in ashes.
your son was killed in battle for that quarter which
does not exist. they gave to
For these bricks, sand and
dust the bodies live.
Ya conducted them to death,
and I live.
Germans speak: Quicker, the lieutenant,
walk in bondage quicker.
A it cannot quicker, it drags
of a body of the guys.
Is not present
(“Conversation with mothers“), there were vain no these 63 days when Warsaw left in private with troops of Wehrmacht, parts of police and CC battled only thanks to the fact that each insurgent fulfilled the civic and military duty “over usual human opportunities“. They made everything that they could. That then directly and openly to look in the face not only each other. But also to the descendants.
And about it too Homer`s verses of the Warsaw revolt - Anna Svirshchinskaya …