How to cook soup or preparation of first courses, liquid dishes?
Soups make fundamentals of healthy nutrition. Since the most ancient times in a diet of the person these liquid dishes representing meat, fish, mushrooms decoctions with seasoning from vegetables, grain, etc. of
Soups consist are useful to a stomach as they contain the substances promoting secretion. Bay leaf, allspice, white korenye, greens of onions and parsley give to soups the aroma strengthening secretion of digestive glands.
Though Soup is not the invention of Italians, the word it is borrowed them. “Zuppa“ in Italian means something liquid, what is drunk. But in the 16th century in Italy did not know some soup yet.
Five hundred years ago one of the Roman cooks told about preparation of a dish which he called zuppa: “In a pot I put gammon, two pounds of beef meat, one pound of veal, a young chicken and a young pigeon. After water begins to boil, I add spices, greens and vegetables. My master could, there is this dish six weeks in a row...“.
The manner to cook soups changed from generation to generation, so, until recently the author of the book “Gift to Young Hostesses“, most popular in Russia, the princess E. Molokhovets advised to add cold water to the evaporated broths that we to do by no means we do not advise.
The general rule of preparation of modern soups is that products should not be subjected to excessive thermal treatment, otherwise their nutrition value decreases, taste and appearance worsen, aroma is lost. Vegetables should be put only in the boiling liquid: in this case vitamin C collapses less.
It is better to enter carrots into soups browned (i.e. slightly fried). Dye - carotene which in a human body turns into vitamin A at the use of crude and boiled carrots is acquired badly.
At a carrots browning comprehensibility of the carotene which passed into fat considerably increases; besides, fat, being painted in orange color, gives to soups a beautiful look.
There are several types of soups. Gradation here set.
Soups are divided by a way of preparation on: filling, transparent, mashed potatoes figurative.
On a liquid basis: soups on broths, vegetable or fruit broths, milk, kvass.
On giving temperature soups are subdivided hot and cold: the first have to be published to a table at a temperature of 75 °C, and the second - at a temperature of 10-12 °C.
By the way, it is useful to you, to remember that excessively cooled food loses the tastes, and heated above 75 °C can burn a mouth and lead to a disease zheludochno - an intestinal path.
For preparation of one portion of soup take, as a rule, 300-350 g of liquid (broth, broth, water).
Soup needs to be cooked so that this dish every time, bore every day a charge of health and a holiday that it was desired and it was looked forward.
Not incidentally soup was served in the east in a porcelain bowl, and in Europe - in a tureen, the oval porcelain casserole with a cover so is called. In such ware hot soup can be put directly on a table.
And if soup is cooked by the skillful culinary specialist, it can become decoration of a table and on the tastes is valid “first course“.
To cook tasty soup, it is necessary to follow several basic rules:
it is necessary that all products were fresh;
when cutting it is necessary to observe strictly the form of their cutting characteristic of soup which you cook as also it influences its taste;
laying of products in soup should be made in the order determined by a compounding;
it is necessary to salt soup always at the end of preparation;
when cooking soup it is necessary to watch it constantly that it did not overboil.
In world culinary practice one and a half hundred types of soups which are subdivided more than into 1000 types are known, and also several subspecies and options have each appearance.
It and is unsurprising: each person who approached a plate and began to prepare becomes, let only for some time, a cook, so, the creative person, some kind of artist of a copper and serving spoon.
Creators can deviate canons of art and to invent and dream (in this case - at a plate).