In what reasons of local disorders of pigmentation?
Exist a set of various anomalies which can appear on skin: from a harmless nevus (birthmarks) and other spots of various types to a malignant melanoma (one of skin cancer forms).
A nevus, or birthmarks, are caused by the localized increase in number of melanotsit in relation to bazalny epidermalny cages. They are extremely widespread and have various forms depending on age of the patient. The majority of birthmarks are good-quality and do not need treatment, but can be removed from esthetic reasons under local anesthesia.
Blue nevus (Mongolian spot). This extensive is gray - a brown birthmark. Most often occurs at babies of black races and usually settles down in a lower back. Inability of melanotsit in the struck area to leave in epidermis is the reason of emergence of a blue nevus. Instead they remain in deeper layers of skin. This nevus usually disappears to 4 - to summer age.
Intraepidermalny (boundary) nevus. These are the small dark, sometimes slightly acting birthmarks. They are called by congestions of the melanotsit which are formed on border of epidermis and terms and are observed in all areas in the late childhood. Usually it towers over a skin surface, and its coloring varies from light-brown till black color. Sometimes from a difficult nevokletochny nevus several hairs grow. A nevus arises when congestions of melanotsit partially extend through bazalny epidermis in a term.
The Intradermalny nevus is the raised education, a little more dark, than surrounding skin. It arises owing to an abnormal congestion of pigmentary cages (melanotsit) in a term.
The Intradermalny nevus - the majority of the nevus arising at adults belong to this type. They can be raised or flat.
A boundary nevus can arise in any place. Boundary they are called because settle down between deep and superficial layers of skin.
The Intradermalny nevus is formed when congestions of melanotsit are localized in a term, but not on border between it and epidermis.
Galonevus - the pale area around earlier existing birthmark sometimes guards people who heard that change of color in the field of birthmarks is a disturbing signal. However it is absolutely good-quality changes which should not be the cause for concern.
The Mongolian spots are the sites of skin containing a large number of melanotsit. They are congenital, but usually disappear by 3 - 5 years.
A nevus, or birthmarks, are a consequence of prevalence of melanotsit in relation to other cells of skin. The majority of birthmarks are good-quality, otherwise they can be easily removed.
Gaponevusa are very widespread. They consist of a nevus and surrounding area of the depigmented skin - Galo. Are absolutely harmless.
A congenital melanotsitny nevus small (less than 5 cm in the diameter), it is pale - brown color, but can darken over time.
This extremely widespread damage of skin, which scientific name - bazalno - cellular papilloma. Seboreyny warts develop with age and can arise on any part of a body. Originally educations flat also have corporal coloring, but with growth they are thickened, rise over a surface of skin itemnet. Color of a mature new growth can vary from brown to black. Warts often have a friable surface and characteristic appearance - they as though are stuck to a skin surface.
Lentigo is flat spots on skin which color varies from light-brown to black. One of them can be congenital and grow together with the child. Others develop at adults, usually on the skin subject to solar radiation. At lentigo bazalny cells of epidermis in the field of a spot are replaced with melanotsita.
Spots of color of coffee with milk are flat sites light-brown color, available from the birth. Usually they a round or oval form
of Lentigo often it is found on skin of elderly people. Sometimes large, slowly growing lentigo can show signs of malignant regeneration.
Seboreyny warts can be on any part of a body. Frequency of their emergence increases with age. They are completely harmless.
Seboreyny warts are completely benign though they sometimes resemble other types of new growths superficially, and often mistakenly take them for birthmarks. Sometimes, for cosmetic reasons or as a result of a trauma, removal of warts can be required.
Freckles, so-called spots of color of coffee with milk can be a neurofibromatosis consequence. This disease is characterized by existence of neurofibromas, the benign tumors developing from cages of fibrous covers of nerves.
Freckles appear as a result of increase in melaninovy pigmentation in a bazalny layer of skin without the corresponding increase in quantity of melanotsit. Most often they occur at white-skinned people, and their quantity increases in proportion to strengthening of influence of the sun.
A malignant melanoma - extremely common form of cancer of skin which can develop from the previous birthmark or a nevus. However it is possible to explain with regeneration of not moustaches only 50% of cases of a melanoma. The reasons of development of other 50% are still precisely unknown though connection with damage of DNA of cells of skin by ultra-violet radiation is supposed.
Malignant melanomas usually develop in the areas which were exposed to intensive influence of an ultraviolet and are connected with the cases of solar burns which were available earlier.
This form of cancer strikes women, than men more often, and develops mainly at white-skinned people. Any birthmark which changes the size or a form begins to itch, to bleed or coloring of which becomes uneven and begins to extend to surrounding skin, has to be surveyed by the skilled doctor. The birthmarks which are again arising at adults also have to be checked. The pale area which appears around borders of a galonevus, does not mean malignant regeneration.
If a melanoma not to treat, cancer can extend, for example, in lymph nodes and a liver that threatens with death. However the most part of malignant melanomas is successfully treated by medicines or surgical removal together with a site of healthy skin around it. In certain cases similar operation can demand plasticity of skin.