The public relations in political strategies of
during election campaign in classical sense are understood As public relations a complex of actions (from one and more) during which the audience receives a certain information message which purpose to exert impact on subsequent “Behaviour“ of the audience.
can understand a wide range As “Behaviour“: from simple remembering the fact there is nobody events before formation of the valuable relation to something and the subsequent choice for something.
is understood As the viewer the representative of a certain social group or as it is correct to call it the target group possessing a certain set of social properties: cultural level, in the certain average ways of social actions - reactions and average consciousness. The average consciousness is characterized by an average set of the social values serving for an assessment of the events which are taking place around and also average inquiries and requirements which in turn are defined by social conditions in which members of target group live. The set of social values, inquiries and requirements comes to light by means of sociological polls, focus of groups or simple communication with a large number of members of target group. The limit concept for such group is the class characterized by the class consciousness realized or not conscious.
the Package of measures is certain organizationally - information set of actions - the action aiming to exert the set impact on behavior of target group. Having rejected rough physical coercion, the only opportunity to achieve group change of behavior or the group set behavior lies through change of a valuable scale of an assessment of external factors and information introduced in target group from the outside. Therefore when the task to influence the average choice of target group or other complex task is set, at the first stages always to be set the task of formation of necessary is information - valuable system of coordinates at representatives of target group. It is necessary for the purpose of their preparation for assimilation of a target message public relations of action and correct reaction in sense of further average action of representatives of target group. Elementary - it can be simple information training of members of target group. More difficult - it is preliminary increase or decrease of a valuable assessment of certain facts in consciousness of members of target group. The purpose - changes in the necessary party of an assessment of the main information messazh (message), average on target group, and the subsequent on it reactions by action, by means of supply of members of target group necessary, often one-sided information and direct demonstration of new valuable approach by group of in advance prepared supporters. Absolutely difficult - it is the state of shock which is artificially caused in the viewer for the purpose of besides modernization in the necessary direction of a valuable assessment of the subsequent messazh. During shock the consciousness of the viewer comes to an elementary state and the settled system of valuable estimates of the events is disconnected - at this moment the viewer does not know how to behave. At this moment in advance prepared group the example shows new reaction, and after participation in joint action gives valuable definition only that perfect in common or to the action seen from outside. Often, to achieve the necessary end result, it is necessary to inform step by step members of target group necessary information and to fulfill with them elementary new reactions to this information. Very strong method is use, for change in the necessary direction of valuable estimates and the next ways of reaction by action, the phobias, general for target group, - the facts causing sensation of fear in all or most of her members. The need for safety is the second greatest requirement after need for food how to satisfy this requirement up to the end nobody knows. Demonstrations of actions and (or) information connected with the fact causing feeling of the hidden fear in members of target group (often even not realized) do them susceptible to new recipes as to secure themselves.
the Important element public relations of action is information aspect. For successful coverage of target group, especially in cases when its size does not allow to capture organizational action of all her members, it is very important to know sources and creation of streams of information exchange in target group: information sources with a rating of their authority and coverage, ways of distribution of information, their speed, the authority and coverage. For example, a source with the general or partial coverage and high level of the group authority is the information message stated aloud and the relation to this message of the informal leader of target social group which is broadcast further through mass media, by means of scoring at meetings or “national radio“ - oral transfer from one member of target group to another is possible. Often a source of information can be simple scoring of some fact through mass media to some coverage to which members of target group got used to trust, for example, in rural areas the population about big degree of trust belongs to information distributed local electronic (TV, radio) mass media, and to rumors which often are correctly started. Information aspect in its real embodiment is called the information interface action public relations. Happens so that there is no information interface, necessary for the successful solution of an objective, or existing does not satisfy to successful achievement of a goal and then it is necessary to create information sources and to organize information streams. For example, during elections it is necessary to organize this most information interface: recruiting a network of the voluntary or paid assistants - an agitatorsky network; to choose from existing or to create necessary sources of information for the period of campaign. Main objective when recruiting is attraction in a network of the members of target group using the highest degree of social trust at other representatives of target group who are able to communicate or having tendency to communication, the subsequent training of recruits in standard ways of communication and information transfer (for the purpose of giving to process of information transfer of system predictable character) and distribution between them other members of target group for the purpose of the fullest coverage. Satisfaction degree to these criteria defines degree of the social importance and completeness of coverage of the information interface of a PR campaign.
Therefore, general scenario of carrying out PR campaign following: First of all the purpose is formulated real, adequate to the present moment, that is the fact that it is required to achieve from members of target groups or group; Then social properties of target groups or group - number of members, a set of values, inquiries and requirements, the main group phobias are defined; Further the existing information interface is defined and measures in case of need of its modernization for the greatest possible coverage of members of target group are carried out; By result of performance of the previous stages the action plan for necessary informing members of target group with the fullest coverage, to change if it is necessary, a valuable scale of perception of members of target group, for preparation and unambiguous perception of the main information messazh is formed.
According to such scenario passes everything - from political advertizing and elective campaigns, before revolutions. Revolution is characterized by full and cardinal change of one public orders and foundations by others and always has the internal economic reasons (the economic conflict of classes) in the basis. However owing to the fact that during revolution there is a cardinal demolition of public consciousness (those valuable estimates and habitual ways of public behavior) when one class loses the leading role in formation of public consciousness and rendering influence on public behavior, and another gets, similar changes can happen only against the external public crisis connected with wars, economic crises - that is, against mass public shock. Revolution always has leaders who it is realized or unconsciously realize the scenario described above. If somewhere there is a failure, revolution suffers a defeat, elections are lost, and advertizing is effectless.
Ability is accurate to realize an ultimate goal, to allocate the target groups possessing various social properties and respectively demanding various practical approaches, ability to estimate, modernize or complete the information interface, and then to formulate a set of actions, sufficient for achievement of an ultimate goal, taking into account organizational opportunities, ability to consistently realize in practice planned - here the PR campaign key to success.