Selective technologies: Pre-election technologies.
At a stage of preparation for elections usually solve two strategic problems: 1) organization of complex studying of electoral properties of future constituency; 2) preparation of the district for elective campaign (actually is a working off in the district of the purposes similar to the purposes which are set at the first stages of election campaign, for the purpose of providing for future candidate or the list of candidates of the most favorable conditions for start of election campaign, often such preparation serves for prevention of advantages of the main opponents, such as a rating of recognition and a rating of positive perception as the voter).
1. Pre-election researches allow will be prepared for effective carrying out campaign, from the very beginning to take in it an initiative. First of all at a stage of preparation for elections:
● the electoral statistics of the previous elections is studied;
● groups socially organized (that is having the general social needs and aspirations, and also more or less similar properties for interpretation of the obtained information) electorate come to light; ● moderators of public opinion come to light - people whose opinion the authority for other members of social group has;
● sociological researches for drawing up the social cards of the constituency showing extent of crushing of electorate of the district by various criteria on social groups, properties of these groups, number of groups and moderators of public opinion for these groups are conducted (the main criteria can be much, for example, territorial, national, professional, age etc., however clear split of electorate of the district into the social groups which are characterized by the general properties of consciousness at members of such groups, the general inquiries and requirements, the general leaders of group opinion etc. often takes place. by the complex criterion which is a combination of several main that allows to make one card and there is no big practical need of drawing up cards of social subspaces of electorate of the district - one card or clear split into social groups it is peculiar for districts with accommodation of the population with so-called public type of consciousness: towns, rural areas; it is a lot of cards describing properties of social subspaces, it is necessary to make in districts where the individualistic type of consciousness of the voter where there are no accurate social communications between people and where respectively there is no clear split into the isolated social groups prevails: the capitals, the regional centers - big cities);
● sociological surveys for detection of the main properties of society of the constituency and its separate groups are conducted;
● information on possible opponents gathers;
● electoral prospects of possible opponents are studied;
● certification of the district is carried out;
● are spent focus of group for the purpose of identification at voters of initial reaction to the candidate, on ways of carrying out propaganda actions, on these or that estimated program the candidate`s moment;
● the card of existence administrative and other types of a resource in the district, their quality, character, carriers - actually the card of elite is formed;
● it is very good to make socially - the psychological map of the district in which, for example, to reveal presence of some characteristic phobias at local population, characteristic ways of reaction to the set set of event irritants (cognitive reactions);
- having executed a full and sufficient set of researches prior to elections the team of the candidate takes the first step to a victory as the obtained information is a basis for creation of effective strategy and definition of an effective set of tactical actions within the forthcoming election campaign, and also basis for creation of an initial election program of the candidate who is based on the decision in case of election of the most pressing problems of the concerning voters of the district.
2. Technologies of preparation of the district for elective campaign of a certain candidate, team or party.
In the district purposeful practical actions of increase in a rating of recognition, a rating of positive perception and according to reduction of a rating of negative perception are carried out. The earlier system work with the constituency will begin, the it is more than chances of success during elections. Ways and methods a set the necessary optimum set has to is defined proceeding from financial and organizational opportunities of team of support of future candidate. For example, the form of charity foundation which holds system charity events in time and space in the territory of future constituency can be practical realization of technology of preparation of the district for elections. (For example the mayor of Stavropol who within six years by means of the charity foundation created by it carried out charity events at schools of Stavropol Krai timed to holidays acted this way, organized mailings direkt a mail in which congratulated as the whole social corporations on their anniversaries, and certain people. Feedback from direkt a mail allowed to adjust communication with the voter and besides by means of fund to give selectively purposeful help to future voters. Result of nearly 85% a recognition rating in the region, nearly 60% a rating of positive perception the population, a negative rating less than 5%. All this allowed to make a speech at elections of 2007 to the State Duma of Stavropol Krai to the mayor as the engine for team of Just Russia and to gain a convincing problem.) It can be a form of the organization of system human rights activity of future candidate (Galina Petrovna Hovanskaya acted this way, for example). The public organization setting as the purpose social protection of future voters and organizing on its own behalf or on behalf of future candidate and depending on the available resources periodic actions. The last method is most favorable for oppositional to the power of politicians as it allows to accumulate around itself the part of electorate which is negatively perceiving the power, and also by purposeful actions constantly to increase this part (Oleg Shein who created labor union Protection and on a wave of trade-union activity become the federal politician, and very powerful political figure in Astrakhan acted this way, for example). The elementary way is a periodic issue of the newspaper or a fighting leaf, formation of group of activists around it and carrying out periodic socially positive or, in case of existence of the social conflict in future constituency, protest actions on the basis of this asset. It is necessary also in advance will attend to support of the elite having influence in the district and to begin motivational campaign for attraction on the party of their support with way of either buying up, or retraction in participation in common cause, or by participation in business important for representatives of this elite etc. - everything depends on opportunities of team of support and the social status of future candidate. Often a necessary element of preparation of the district for elective campaign are the purposeful actions directed to system discredit of the strongest potential opponents or elite them supporting.
- Practical preparation of the district for elective campaign is the true art demanding experience and creation of masterpieces from political strategists, responsible for process. In case of application of this technology demanding expenses from team of support of future candidate or group of candidates chances of success of the campaign very strongly grow. Actually spent means act as the contribution guaranteeing success, the contribution which is very strongly reducing financial and reputation risks when financing the subsequent elective campaign - actually elective campaign is in fact the instrument of converting of a resource, reputation and financial, in a resource imperious.