Selective technologies: Creation of networks of propagandists.
the Network of propagandists are the instrument of broadcast of information, necessary within any election campaign, on the candidate for the voting population of the constituency, the result of campaign of the candidate in many respects depends on quality of it tools. Except function of informing the population on the candidate, his program and actions taken by the candidate`s staff, the functionality of a network of propagandists includes very important functions: mobilization of supporters of the candidate for an exit of their greatest possible number to vote sites, and also function of receiving direct feedback of the candidate coming from the voter from the place to a staff which allows to obtain necessary information for an assessment of correctness of the ideological and tactical direction of conducting campaign, for the correct carrying out expeditious actions meeting an objective situation within campaign. As the information tool - the network of propagandists has to have maximum, ideally 100%, coverage of the voting population of the district. Information is transferred to the voter by a network in several main ways: first of all in the form of transfer of printing materials APM which are developed by the candidate`s staff, and also in an oral form by information transfer of the candidate in the form of the message during conversation with the voter. To transfer to the maximum number of voters of APM of the candidate, it is necessary to reach these voters and to cause positive perception of the candidate in voters, it is necessary: propagandists of a network have to look so that not to push away the voter; were able to tell well and accurately the voter the necessary information about the candidate; had whenever possible at the voter authority that the voter listened to their opinion etc. Election campaign, good from the point of view of technology, is divided into technological stages during which certain sets of tactical tasks are fulfilled and to which the corresponding actions of a network of propagandists - a propaganda wave are attached, therefore the network has to be able to fulfill these actions in the time frames which are taken away for each technological stage. Besides within campaign constantly there are “operational calls“ to the current of circumstances planned by the candidate`s staff, from staffs of candidates of opponents, unplanned socially important events in life of society of the constituency, etc., therefore the staff has to obtain operational information about existence of such “calls“ and about changes, forms of these changes and extent of coverage of consciousness of the voting population of the constituency. To have an opportunity to react quickly to these calls, besides relying on controllability, globality and flexibility of the main instrument of impact on social reality and consciousness of the voter of the district. There are very important requirements to a network of propagandists - efficiency and flexibility of management, efficiency of receiving feedback, and also resistance of a network to negative external impacts. Quality of the created networks: their conscientiousness, controllability, success in work with voters, the maximum coverage of the voting population of the district is the main business card of any team of selective political strategists. Conditions of carrying out election campaigns constantly change, often demanding from staffs of a very different set of actions, receptions and ways of conducting campaign, however all this loses meaning in lack of team conscientious, obedient to will of a staff and the performers who are most adapted under algorithm of conducting campaign - propagandists.
Main criteria of quality of a propaganda network following:
1) First of all we will enter very convenient criterion of quality of a network of propagandists - DEGREE of SOCIAL WEIGHT (WHICH ALSO EXTENT of COVERAGE by the NETWORK of VOTERS ENTERS) networks! What implies this concept? For fuller judgment we will address at first to functional to loading of a network of propagandists as component of election campaign - the main function of a network of propagandists is broadcast of information on the candidate or team of candidates (in case of party campaign) on the voting population of the constituency. That is the main function of propagandists is a carrying and information transfer to the voter about the one who is chosen. Process of information transfer is a process of communication, therefore process successful result of which is defined by a set of factors of personal character and first of all a factor of as far as is credible and information from the propagandist`s lips sounds authoritatively for the voter. From here also necessary personal property which the propagandist has to possess results - he has to possess a maximum level of the authority for the voters living on part of the constituency in which this propagandist will carry out propaganda (or simply telling the site assigned to the propagandist for conducting propaganda activity). Therefore the professional political strategist has to aspire to a rekrutization in the network of propagandists first of all of the people having already personal contact with the population living in this or that part of the district and using as it is possible the big social authority. In case of lack of the similar contingent it is necessary to involve the propagandists having as it is possible bigger experience of communication with the population and able to gain trust of the population - workers of the social sphere are ideally suited. The criterion DEGREE of SOCIAL WEIGHT of a network is quantitatively - the qualitative characteristic having a qualitative component - presence of socially authoritative propagandists in a network and quantitative their percentage in the relation to total of propagandists. Get prettier a network can be considered when percent socially - authoritative propagandists in it more than 60 - 70%. The good technologist throughout all company has to carry out constantly selection of a network, based on results of control of its work and personal contact with voters (it is useful to carry out by sizbiratel on places of work of this or that propagandist peculiar focus of group - just interrogating on the street or during meetings with the candidate, I am interested periodically, how positively they perceive in the personal plan of the propagandist and how adequately the propagandist conveys information to voters). Characteristic feature of lack of professionalism at technologists and very widespread defect on elective campaigns is negligence to quality of the taken propagandists - when for propaganda activity gather anyone: social outcasts, persons with repellent appearance, and often just mad, that is all that who participation in propaganda activity does irreparable harm to image of the candidate or team of candidates. The propagandist is a face of the candidate on a site where he carries out propaganda, a network - a face of the candidate in all the constituency and one of the main functions of the technologist, creation of as much as possible authoritative and having a positive image image of the candidate. The size of a site on which the propagandist carries out propaganda for the candidate is defined by quantity of doors (apartments or private houses), the most optimum are a site to about 500 apartments or 250 private houses - therefore the network has to comprise exactly so many propagandists how many it is necessary in order that all doors in the constituency were captured.
2) Following and not less important criterion DEGREE of CONTROLLABILITY of a network. In the conditions of modern elective campaign with its intensive schedule speed of management of a network and speed of transfer on a network of information, necessary for propaganda process, get very much importance. Are a consequence of these requirements emergence of the pyramidal scheme of the organization of a network in which floors between the chief technologist and propagandists are occupied by intermediate managers - foremen, sectional foremen etc. Psychological researches show that one person can communicate fruitfully at most with 30 other people including to direct them, is real in the conditions of constantly changing situation on elections and lack of professionally prepared staff this number decreases to 10 - 15 people. Therefore configuration of propagandists on 10 - 15 people united on a territorial sign is optimum, these propagandists the foreman, also not the professional propagandist, but having skills of management of people and a basis of labor discipline directs. The management of crew is respectively mediated by return of instructions to the foreman. Best of all for a role of foremen people or ever working at the leading work, or the former accountants, etc. approach. Very important point of formation of a network that more initially the foreman or crew, a widespread mistake is a case when the technologist at first finds the foreman, and then dumps on that a problem of formation of its crew of propagandists. In this case there is an opportunity for unfair work as it is favorable to foreman to invite to himself in crew of lime propagandists for the purpose of assignment in the subsequent their salaries. Besides the technologist will not be able to meet requirements of criterion 1 (DEGREE of SOCIAL WEIGHT). Above above foremen there are sectional foremen to whom about 15 foremen respectively submit. Usually the concept a bush coincides with borders of territorial division: area, town etc. (from 10000 to 100000 thousand voters). To a position of the sectional foreman it is already necessary to select the persons possessing wide political strategy experience. Formation of a network on the to a bush therefore it has to have experience of similar work, at least as the foreman belongs to duties of the sectional foreman. Besides the sectional foreman is not the simple performer, but the technologist who defines nature of carrying out campaign on the to a bush. Therefore the good technologist has to find as much as possible time for carrying out trainings with sectional foremen, trying to obtain from them clearness in understanding of the tasks set for them, and also a certain standardization of ways of performance of these tasks, that is reasonable uniformity in performance of political strategy actions. The sectional foreman is followed already by the level of the technologist of the direction (conducts the district from the district of the size for elections to regional legislative assembly more), to which about 25 sectional foremen respectively have to submit (for example, in Moscow is a head of campaign of the Administrative District). The professional political strategist with a wide experience of work on elections has to direct campaign of such level. At this level actually it is necessary and to stop as at it real management of campaign is performed. The following levels have already is advisory more - strategic mission as from them there is no possibility of the real management of tactics of field actions any more. The technologist of the direction bears responsibility for quality of campaign in the territory entrusted to it and for its result. It is also necessary to note that at this level there is a division of duties and really are present the chief technologist who is responsible for all campaign, his deputy in the field direction (or polevik), responsible for field work (all as for direct work with a network of propagandists) and other experts: lawyer, sociologist, journalist, designer etc. The criterion DEGREE of CONTROLLABILITY belongs to work at this level and includes a set of parameters, first of all speed of mobilization of a network for carrying out propaganda waves, the speed and adequacy of distribution of necessary information in a network, the speed of obtaining the return information on network functioning, degree of conscientiousness of performance by propagandists of a network of propaganda actions.
3) the Criterion of SYSTEMACITY of network functioning meaning first of all stability of a network in space and time, stability of performance by a network of the functions allocated for it, reasonable commonality of performance of propaganda actions (or more simply being expressed to predictability of results from these actions), and also compliance of various territorial parts to a level of quality necessary for successful performance in these territories set for a network (field structure) of the tasks.
- Respectively the system work with a network distinguishing the good technologist means his continuous activity on improvement of compliance of a network of propagandists to the criteria stated above. The network a face of the candidate (or teams of candidates), a network a source of information on the candidate (team of candidates) for voters, a network is the main instrument of positive impact on the voter which the campaign headquarters and limits has to perfection here do not!
Exists several approaches to creation of networks of propagandists.
1 approach. Announcements in which appears about temporary job on elections are glued and contact phones of a staff are given. Called if they correspond on age, the place of residence or by other criteria formulated by a staff, invite to interview. Therefore in this approach the main actions are: formulation the guide of a staff of necessary criteria which the member of a network of propagandists has to possess then to announcements invite potential candidates to interview. The main shortcomings of similar approach are rather long process of a set of a suitable network and in the majority the network remains unfinished and that to understaff it usually gather additionally the first comers of the subjects who showed desire, being often reconciled with their marginality. As a result it turns out or the network, insufficient on number, or not corresponding to the necessary criteria elaborated by a staff, and in most cases both. Besides the similar method is also vulnerable for competitors, it is easy to pump up a similar network people to whom pay for dishonesty and sabotage. Therefore professionals use this method as auxiliary.
2 approach. The political strategist responsible for the field itself looks for the network. In search of a network the political strategist before election campaign passes the district, in passing making the initial passport of the district. The workers of the social sphere who are in the territory of the district enter a circle of potential propagandists (kindergartens, schools, policlinics, mails, Shaki, etc.) besides concierges can be good propagandists, other very perspective category are members of various public organizations which are in the territory of the district (the disabled people, veterans sick with diabetes and so on) having an extensive network of members on specifics of the activity. Having usually agreed in one of the above-stated places, you receive also additional members of a network whom already found propagandists come. If the candidate has an entry into the specified organizations, it is natural to use his communications. Advantages of a similar network are obvious as workers of the social sphere and members of the specified public organizations by the nature of the activity have the come contacts with local population, besides they owing to these contacts can make the help to a staff a psychological portrait of the voter. An important role is played also by the corporate relations established in similar groups. Shortcomings are vulnerability for an administrative resource if it not on the party of the candidate. Therefore the staff has to will attend to more careful check of conscientiousness of activity of the crews made of similar propagandists. For information leakage minimization directly to work with the foreman (usually the foreman costs above the others on an office or public ladder), and in crew during interview to allocate several or at least one individuals which would be a source of information alternative to the foreman and of which whenever possible the foreman would would do not know. In this way an important role is played by ability of the chief of a staff on field works to find contact with people and to be able to convince them. As practice shows in case it is possible to convince similar collective to become part of an agitatorsky network, it works very honestly, well we operate and is inclined to competitive process at correct a materialny motivation with other parts of an agitatorsky network - owing to well developed internal corporate consciousness.
3 approach. The political strategist himself grows up an agitatorsky network. Constantly practicing political strategist who passed a set of election campaigns and other political strategy processes at desire can easily pick up during these campaigns to himself the constant contingent of the performers, most well suitable for work. On the other hand, participation in a set of political strategy campaigns develops at people professional skills actually transferring them to the category of professional propagandists, to that well worked well together among themselves and besides to development at them well developed corporate consciousness. As practice shows the most well similar structures turn out from students among whom at first selective work is carried out, then the most perspective shots with which the others right there begin to try to keep step are isolated. (Experience of use of students in elections to the Moscow City Council showed what at this method managed to be created well operated, and competition is easy to organize the structure broken into the five, very honestly working which for itself pulls unlimited number of members, in which professional skills are easily transferred - students during the work on party the Homeland with success were used in apartment propaganda. The service of check of the candidate at the initial stage quickly allowed to eliminate unfair, the others as then the involved students did not cause in this service of complaints. Efficiency of apartment propaganda on average reached from 400 to 700 pro-agitated apartments from 1000. Price-work terms of payment of work and a joint liability of the five were an important element. The subsequent use of structure on municipal elections in the Moscow region also revealed good professional skills and conscientiousness of structure, claims from groups of check almost in essence did not arrive. And candidates for whom the structure in the majority worked won elections, and even in cases of active use by opponents of an administrative resource)
- in practice the professional political strategist uses a combination of all three ways for creation of a network of propagandists. An important aspect is also the way of the organization of a network which is most facilitating management of its activity and allowing to control effectively it.