Selective technologies: Petition.
officially begin With petition election campaign. The citizen notifies Election commission on the desire to participate as the candidate in the forthcoming elective campaign (the party notifies the commission on the list of candidates which is put forward according to party lists). If the citizen is not nominated with assistance of party of the Russian Federation which went in the last election campaign to the State Duma, then he should execute the obligatory qualification to participate in elections, to collect the necessary number of signatures of voters of the district in support of the promotion (The party which does not have representation in the State Duma that its list was allowed to the subsequent stages of election campaign needs to execute the same). Often signatures are collected by candidates (and the party organizations in the district where there take place elections) who in it do not have need. It becomes to try to acquaint as the bigger number of voters with the biography of the candidate is possible (with the party list) and to achieve that as the bigger number of voters of the district is possible supported promotion of the candidate (list) and consequently to create communication thanks to which voters will be more between the candidate (party) and these voters shows consideration to for propaganda materials and performances of the candidate supported by them at promotion (promotion of the list of which they supported parties).
So in fact petition is the beginning of direct propaganda for the candidate (list). During collecting voters obtain primary information on the candidate, from this first step, more true degree of positivity of perception of further propaganda campaign for the candidate by the population depends on quality of its execution.
we will describe Further all actions only concerning the candidate, meaning that it is similarly necessary to work in case of petition for the party list.
a petition Stage one of the most responsible during election campaign and one of the most difficult circumstances owing to a number and therefore demands thorough training and the accurate organization. At a preparatory stage it is necessary to create well trained groups of collectors of signatures consisting or of the professional collectors, or from not marginal representatives of local social communities (social groups) of inhabitants living in the territory of the constituency or employees of the enterprises of the social sphere which are in the territory of the constituency. Practice shows that the combination of professional collectors with two other groups is optimum. At a preparatory stage it is also necessary to formulate the accurate biography of the candidate with the emphasis on the indication of the facts in it capable to cause sympathy in residents of the constituency, and lack of the return facts. Usually materials for petition for the candidate are created on the following templates 5x5 or 7x7 - 5 or 7 of the facts from the biography plus of 5 or 7 positive characteristics of the identity of the candidate. Option 5õ5 is the most optimum as it is the easiest remembered by voters. (The structure 5x5 or 7x7 reflects two poles of perception us the world; 5 facts from the biography of the candidate are desirable to reflect those facts which the candidate considers for himself powerful, these facts have to reflect him “I“ - structures, that is to be those significant concepts which the candidate associates with himself first of all, those concepts corresponding to which the candidate as the personality interprets surrounding information, further these “I“ it is necessary to commensurate with local population - [having carried out by perception of local population, pro-focuswillows focus - group] at least among supporters and propagandists and with “I“ the main rivals [if those are already known], having compared them on the importance of perception local population besides having carried out focus - group; 5 characteristics of the candidate are that as he is perceived by relatives and! authoritative people, if the authority of such person(s) is high among future voters, it is possible and it is even necessary to deliver under characteristics to the signature). Obligatory element of a preparatory stage are the training seminars and trainings for collectors during which professional propagandists have to pass the test for good knowledge of the biography of the candidate, history of his promotion (why the candidate wants to participate in elections whether he moved forward or it the support group consisting of authoritative people put forward or it enjoys support of concrete party), have to be acquainted with the changes of the legislation concerning petition, and nonprofessionals have to master petition process in the form of a role-playing game, pass the test for correctness of filling of a subscription list (the main reason for marriage at conscientious collectors), the biography of the candidate and the main paragraphs of the current legislation concerning petition. The organization of such training on brigadno is possible. Higher and higher stated it is necessary to formulate in the course of preparation of petition in the instruction for the propagandist and the biography of the candidate with the good photo. The photo of the candidate is the first that is seen by the person to whom suggest to deliver the signature in support of promotion therefore already at this stage it is desirable to invite the skilled photographer and to finish shooting the candidate in style of estimated image for elective campaign (clothes and his manner to behave often tell it about independence and strong-willed qualities and style of the person - it is and the photographer has to imprint professionally, and then on focus - to confirm to group independent observers from local population, it is desirable belonging to social groups which then will vote for the candidate on elections). It is also desirable to supply sboshchik of signatures with a crib of the current legislation which is regulating petition and accurately indicating with reference to sources of the right and an obligation of the parties of legal relationship - it is necessary for prevention of negative perception by locals of invasion of the collector of signatures into their life (at petition, the person interested to subscribe has to show to the collector the passport, data from which the collector is obliged to enter in a subscription list). during seminars of collectors it is necessary to break
for flexibility of the subsequent management into crews with allocation of a position of the foreman. Also other option is possible - to initially gather crews. Has to belong to duties of the foreman: collecting at collectors of ready sheets, initial visual check of correctness of filling, and also the organization directly on the place of process of petition. The crew has to be tied by mutual responsibility in sense of quality of performance of petition, performance of quantitative norm proceeding from norm of a minimum of petition on the person and a number of people in crew and therefore solidary to bear responsibility for inadequate performance of the task charged to crew, and also solidary to be awarded with a possibility of redistribution of punishment or an award in crew. The flexible system of payment when each correctly collected signature is paid with a certain sum is important, and excess of some maximum is paid with accurately certain awards. At such system in a duty of the political strategist leading petition to organize competition between crews and to watch justice of distribution of means in crews. (An example of the opposite approach which appeared extremely unsuccessful campaign for “RPZh“ on elections the Moscow City Council of 2005 can serve. when propagandists had an accurate fixed payment independent of the number of collected signatures, elements of competitive process were not organized, and there was no joint liability of crews and their foremen - all this caused objective difficulties at petition therefore subscription campaign was failed).
Election campaigns which carried out or in which the political strategists entering into staff of Laboratory participated showed that the optimum number of team of collectors are five people. The foreman has to be awarded in addition depending on five indicators best of all for this role professional propagandists or, in case of a set of employees of institutions of the social sphere, the person standing above other members of crew on an office ladder approach. In case of a big field (big necessary number of collectors or propagandists) over five heads of the five the released foreman who submits already directly to the head of campaign headquarters is put.
At a stage of preparation for petition a staff on the basis of the passport of the district and data on structure of crews allocates them the territory defined for work for the purpose of the fullest coverage of the territory of the constituency! Are possible the organization of the accompanying actions in the form of street petition about objects of the inhabitants living in the constituency attracting social interest! (So during one of the electoral companies in regional (municipal) meetings Moscow experience of street petition near Mitino when at the same time with petition for the candidate signatures for closing or transfer of a mitinsky radio market and acceleration of construction of the line of the subway gathered was very successful. Naturally within preparation for election campaign subscription campaign for the above-stated requirements with participation of future candidate was begun earlier. As a result process of petition was limited tryomya to pickets which for a short time typed the necessary number of signatures.) Preparation of the accompanying actions and carrying out street petition serves rather a purpose of simplification of the subsequent apartment petition in the adjacent area and the propaganda purposes for the candidate in modern conditions.
Exists several ways of petition, and also propaganda, passing with it, for the candidate!
1 way. Apartment petition. Actually is a version of the apartment propaganda stock complicated besides need of receiving from the inhabitants of rather confidential information living in the territory of the constituency in the form of passport data. Therefore involvement of professional collectors, together with locals or workers of the social sphere is desirable.
2 way. Corporate petition. Attraction to work (“naturally at an inopportune time“) the staff of the enterprises of the social sphere (the staff of kindergartens, social subsidies, zhek, schools), and also members of public organizations is very effective, and it is even better together with the management (like societies of the disabled people having diabetes, etc.) it is even better when it is possible to organize in a row whole collective. Then petition is carried out very effectively in collective, and also among the inhabitants using services of a social institution or members of public organization. There is a wish to note however that in connection with existence of a notorious administrative resource to do a full rate on this way of petition and the subsequent conducting elective campaign very risky. The most effective is a combination of 1 and 2 ways in the proportions depending on the sizes of the necessary field and opportunities of application against the candidate of an administrative resource (the techniques allowing to estimate degree of risk are developed and respectively in advance approximately to define the most effective proportions) (For example, on elections to the Moscow Region Duma of 2001. several Zhekov and a social subsidy were involved in the 34th constituency in a network of propagandists of one of candidates in the city Railway, it allowed to collect as fast as possible necessary signatures, however in the subsequent to opponents leaning on unfriendly to the candidate the city authorities it was succeeded to achieve “change“ of part of collectives that however right there thanks to the correct organization of work with a network was revealed the candidate`s staff. In the city of Reutov the power was friendly to the candidate, and the involved society of disabled people very effectively collected necessary signatures, and then worked for the candidate for time of the subsequent elective campaign)
3 a way. So-called street petition in street pickets. However really this way owing to very severe requirements to correctness of filling of subscription lists and the difficulty of attraction passing by inhabitants has now very small efficiency, however it is possible to think up very effective ways of auxiliary use of this way.
- Within subscription campaign should mention also very important element, namely check of conscientiousness of petition and correctness of filling of subscription lists. Now election commissions are completed by very skilled members, they well established relations with expert institutions that allows to discard very effectively the drawn signatures or census by collectors of honestly collected, but incorrectly written down signatures. The most effective way of fight against these phenomena, is the correct organization of subscription campaign, however percent of dishonesty and marriage even in ideally organized campaign all the same will be nonzero. The service of check consisting of experts of handwriting experts and the service of direct check, by selective rounds or call-downs which signed is necessary for data of a negative to a minimum. Usually for check choose the certain step depending on staff opportunities, for example, 20 - check every twentieth. In case check yields negative result, the step is reduced and checked in that place of the list where refusal to recognize itself as the signer, for example, every fifth is revealed. If more detailed check yields negative result, then sheets of this collector are rejected, he admits unfair and remuneration is not paid to it.