Selective technologies: Work with the population of
Work with the population in the conditions of modern election campaign means first of all accurate knowledge of technologies of contact actions of a gain of trust of the population and its mobilization at the time of vote, and also good knowledge of the previous electoral statistics in the constituency, the constant accounting of the sociological and analytical researches conducted in the district before and in time election campaign. Before election campaign the staff is obliged to make for itself approximate electoral and social maps of the district, and also the passport of the district that allows to choose already at a stage of promotion of candidates of opponents the correct strategy on the forthcoming campaign (the truth, the Russian practice such is that often before campaign no staff exists yet and everything should be done at a stage of promotion of candidates). Always it is useful to begin campaign to its official announcement. If the main rivals are known, the assessment of their electoral weight, and also structure of this weight can make effective use of technologies with candidates setups.
Work with the population during the campaign
methods of work with the population include various contact actions on a gain the candidate of trust at the population, and also that is much important, actions on the organization of the income of electorate of the candidate to polling precincts. In work about the population important quality of conducting election campaign is its systemacity, and the correct organization of forms of information transfer of the candidate to the population.
Distinguish several forms of carrying out propaganda actions during election campaign:
1. Apartment propaganda of the population (necessary element of campaign).
Very important element of successful execution of this technology is the correct territorial planning providing coverage of all voting population in the constituency. Important criterion is also time of full execution of technology, that is time for which all voting population will be bypassed (naturally to bypass all, and round is carried out in the places of residence, not really as will not be at home someone, someone will not open, someone will not want to communicate - there are empirically established criteria of success of round of the population, on average considers that if it was succeeded to bypass all doors [for which live people - apartments, private houses] and successfully to communicate [it means that living opened a door, listened and took APM] with more, than 40% are a success) One more important criterion is sufficiency or lack of excessiveness - in other words rounds of the population should not be too frequent as excessive propaganda to the population quickly bothers and causes in it rejection and a protest which then develops into protest vote against the candidate on sites. Propaganda materials have to be developed taking into account social structure of the population, local stereotypes and the main inquiries and needs of voters, and should not cause rejection. The financial part the organization of round has to motivate correctly propagandists on achievement of the maximum technological result on results of round of voters.
the Content of technology of apartment propaganda is in that propagandists bypass the places of residence of voters: apartments and private households - it is accepted to call conditional such place “door“, are knocked and in case open for them, pronounce a certain text (good style preliminary drawing up this text by the technologist and working off then this text on focus - groups is) in which the propagandist tells the voter that he came to agitate for it is that the candidate, it is represented what is his name (propagandist), and further or just gives to APM which opened a set whether or gives a set of APM and tries to find out from opened will go that to vote and as opened treats the identity of the candidate. The propagandist has to know well basic data from the biography of the candidate and from his preliminary program (or on another why the candidate went to elections who put forward whose interests the candidate to protect is going to protect and as in case of a victory), and also date of elections and the phrase: “What to go to vote is the constitutional debt of all citizens of the country“ - and in case at opened there are questions to be able on them articulately, intelligibly and briefly to answer. Nuances here set: first the propagandist himself has to look so that at once the appearance not to frighten opened or not to cause in it rejection (the women of middle and advanced age who are tidily looking best of all approach); secondly to be able to speak accurately and quickly; in the third that the propagandist surely represented the candidate, even on teeth knowing his biography and possessing information on promotion, it is very desirable to organize a meeting before round, it is desirable with mutual communication between the candidate and propagandists participating in apartment propaganda; in the fourth the propagandist has to be able to level casual bad mood of opened, not to be afraid of communication and at the same time to be able to finish this communication if it dragged on (all this is reached by selection of candidates and by the subsequent trainings of the technologist on field works, it is desirable the social psychologist helping it with propagandists). Results of round are entered in the special roundabout sheet and consist: from the door address; instructions opened or did not open, the reasons why did not open: there is no house, do not want; whether took place in case opened, contact or not - in other words was taken by APM or did not take; characteristics of the relation to elections and to the candidate: will go or will not go to vote, treats the candidate kindly, badly, will go to vote for the candidate, will go to vote for other candidate, was not defined yet. In case was not at home someone, the propagandist has to try to come to other time (in order that the propagandist made it, it needs to be motivated correctly).
B printsipeodin the propagandist can pass many doors, but for this purpose it needs also a lot of time that in the conditions of correctly organized election campaign with clear split of tactical stages is not acceptable as each stage aims also the temporary limits. The corresponding waves of propaganda and during which the voter receives the APM sets answering according to contents the stage purpose are attached to these tactical stages (for example, work on recognition, then work on motivation of target groups and at the end mobilization of supporters on a mass exit to vote). That is since the beginning of a stage to its end the network of propagandists has to capture completely all constituency, having informed whenever possible to as it is possible bigger number of voters the corresponding set of APM. Besides at the end of each stage the technology of work with a propaganda network demands quality check of its work for elimination and removal of the unfair, inept and working for the benefit of opponents propagandists - specially created groups of check which it is selective do it, on the basis of the roundabout sheets completed with propagandists by results of round bypass or ring round citizens and provert by poll compliance to information obtained from them to what is entered by the propagandist in the roundabout sheet. Usually steps multiple 5 - ti (everyone is checked 5 or 10 or 15 etc. a door) are chosen, in case of detection of discrepancy (it often happens from - for the fact that to group of check and the propagandist the door was opened by different people), about a point (door) of discrepancy additional checks become if the propagandist was nedobrosovesen - it becomes clear at once. So all these actions demand time, but time it has to keep within a framework of the corresponding stage. From here the fact that to capture all district for a limited period and behind that still to manage to check quality of work and to reveal an unfair element follows if it is, it is necessary to break the district between propagandists, having assigned to everyone that quantity of doors which he is able to bypass in the taken-away period. It is natural to spend time for defining efficiency of each propagandist during election campaign inexcusable expenditure of forces of a staff therefore the problem is solved applying, the average performance standards established in the empirical way on the average propagandist from 150 to 250 doors in private possession and from 300 to 500 doors in apartment houses on one propagandist. Further it is necessary to decide on the principle by distribution of the territory of the district between propagandists (for which time the propagandist has to bypass the norm from 3 - x to 5 - ti days). Employees of the organizations of the social sphere, members public organizations it is better to use the network of propagandists consisting of the population living in the territory of the district by the principle of fixing to each propagandist of a certain territory, it is better to use the professional propagandists and propagandists who are not living in the territory of the district in the form of the crews bypassing the territory on square to a nested method - to segment the district and in turn to fulfill these parts by means of professional propagandists (despite professionalism, such propagandists give smaller effect in sense of performance of a problem of broadcasting of information on the candidate for the population as information from the stranger - not living in one district with the voter of the propagandist has smaller weight for the voter, communication with the voter performed by professional propagandists is more mechanistic, than performed by the propagandist - the neighbor in the yard, to the street or the quarter - therefore and connection between them is established weaker [and we remember that the main functions of an agitatorsky network are a broadcast of information on the candidate for the population of the constituency, collecting data on a situation in the district and inquiries of voters - feedback, mobilization of supporters of the candidate for arrival for polling precincts], including the return as to the voter in case of emergence questions at it after studying of APM will not be possible to communicate to the propagandist - therefore at application of crews from professionals it is necessary to pay attention to creation of a parallel way of receiving interactive feedback from the population, for example, having developed a network of public receptions and having informed on it the voter).
As can see after high-quality apartment propaganda round the staff on the basis of studying of roundabout sheets and oral poll of propagandists receives the detailed picture of electoral properties of the population of the district: tendency to perception of information on campaign - interest to a kampaniikandidat; the attitude towards the candidate (at the first round the relation a priori becomes clear as if, at the following the voter`s attitude towards the identity of the candidate and his program installations stated in APM which were carried in the previous rounds becomes clear already); to define percent of the active population which resolved to go to vote etc. Processing of these materials with possible participation of the sociologist and psychologist will give a lot of valuable information on tactics of further conducting campaign. we will mention by
a paramount element necessary for successful execution of technology at the end - motivation. Widespread mistake when conducting election campaigns is the leveling system of payment of work of propagandists - when all propagandists receive strictly certain identical sum for performance of the duties which does not depend from development (usually the minimum which they have to execute to get paid is carried to propagandists), from conscientiousness of the propagandist. The standard situation turns out when the propagandist is torn off from results of the work, as if well it did not work or carelessly - the sum will be same. Yes often at such system apply as motivation of the promise to pay all an award in case of a victory, but besides all and besides identical. Advantage of this scheme in sense of planning of expenses on a network are obvious, but it means to please to accountants to endow efficiency of campaign and to deprive campaign of such valuable factor of the worker - the propagandist as an initiative and an initiative. The leveling system often instead of motivation on result, motivates participants of an agitatorsky network on various manifestations of dishonesty and deception, with the purpose to hide the dishonesty. Only the maximum efficiency, correct from the point of view of receiving, and productivity of propaganda actions the price-work system of compensation of the propagandist - payment which depends on overall performance of the propagandist and on its productivity is. Let`s consider the roundabout sheet once again: the propagandist causing the look trust and able to communicate well having bypassed the site successful communication and transfer of APM will put in the column it is more plus; the conscientious propagandist will pass the site several times to get to doors which did not open for him in the first round - and besides the positive result will appear - such propagandist naturally has to and earn more (usually pay several rubles for successful contact; for the taken place contact, but with negative result pay three times less, do not pay anything for an unopened door). Such organization of work has one more very serious motivational plus, results of the most successful propagandists bring to the others that allows to motivate them during the following round on aspiration to achieve similar results or even to surpass them. At such system propagandists better perceive and adopt the positive experiment of the colleagues on a network which allowed them to reach bigger than on average efficiency. Yes the cost of such round can be much higher, than rated cost at leveling payment with a necessary minimum of development, but will surpass effect many times.
2. Population meetings with the candidate (necessary element of campaign). A form of direct propaganda by the candidate for. One of the most important elements of campaign. There is such proverb “A picture is worth a thousand words“ - at a meeting the candidate just has this most important opportunity - to prove to be to the population. This technology allows at the correct working off systemically to create and fix the complete image of the candidate which is coordinated with the ideological direction of propaganda at the population. Whether often by results of direct communication with different candidates the voter makes the decision to go in general to vote and if to go, then for what of candidates. The technology of direct communication of the candidate with the population is very important element of a gain of trust at the population which enters number obligatory along with informing the population through materials AMP and visual (evident) propaganda. Campaign in the absence of any one of these elements will not have almost any impact on the voter as that just will have no enough information to make the decision. Specifics of meetings are that it is impossible to meet and communicate to all, in literal sense of this word, voters, especially if the level of elections means the constituency more than 1000 people, but it is necessary to find a way and time to communicate to the number of voters sufficient in order that they ottranslirovat impression about a meeting on other voters living with them in one yard, quarter, the area, a mudflow etc. And it is necessary to communicate so that to call the voter on dialogue and desire, by vote FOR, to participate performed by the program of the candidate. Respectively practical execution of technology depends on the number of voters in the district, however contents and the purposes always remain same, only methods and ways of their achievement change.
the Main maintenance of a meeting of the candidate with the population is an adjustment between the candidate and voters by participants of a meeting of positive dialogue during which voters obtain information on the candidate and his program from the story of the candidate which then is illustrated by answers of the candidate for the asked questions (often these questions ask in advance prepared participants of a meeting from among motivated supporters) devoted to problems actual for participants of a meeting, and the candidate obtains feedback from the population information on what problems the population wants that the won candidate solved, etc. The main objective of correctly organized meeting is that at as it is possible the bigger number of voters of attendees at a meeting there was a resistant feeling of positive dialogue with the candidate and confidence that the candidate heard their problems, is capable to solve them and already began to solve them (naturally all to solve problems not perhaps therefore the technology when among participants there are meetings is often applied or among inhabitants there are places where there takes place the meeting with the candidate, is chosen one causing the greatest respect or the most loud and active. Very good style is when the candidate begins to solve the problem specified local by the leader of public opinion who then broadcasts information on it on all community of the voters living in this place). From the candidate, his image makers and a staff in a straight line the success this, very important, a type of propaganda depends. The staff has to find out the problems concerning the voter and local stereotypes and usage in a meeting venue in advance, to invite to a meeting that social component of electorate which can be potential voters of the candidate (even in case members of this social group support the nomination of the opponent), experts have to analyse problems and stereotypes, then together with image makers and the candidate (often one technologist who is responsible for meetings acts as the expert and the image maker, but it is better that at least 2 - 3 persons were engaged in the organizations of meetings, and the candidate at a meeting surely had a press - the secretary who fixed briefly the course of a meeting and helped the candidate to communicate with the population releasing it, for example, from need to spend time for written fixing of problems of specific voters, and also by personal contact calmed immoderately the got excited participants of a meeting, for example, having just given them it will be uttered and representing the attentive listener. Besides it is very expedient to involve in process of the organization of meetings of the psychologist which will help the candidate to develop style of communication, optimum for properties of the identity of the candidate, with the population) to develop the optimum scenario of a meeting, to prepare the candidate it is information. The scenario of meetings and tactics of behavior at the candidate`s meeting, and also ways of his communication about the population have to constantly from a meeting to a meeting be specified and improved being conformed with result of the previous meetings, experience and personal features of the candidate. The technologists who are responsible for work with field structure have to provide optimum for the chosen meeting form (it can be a meeting in the yard, a meeting at the enterprise or in establishment, the big meeting in a recreation center which is followed by a concert etc.) number of voters (the fact that at direct communication one person cannot communicate more than with 30 - yu other people is known, and in case of a street meeting considering its specifics the candidate even using services of the assistant - the secretary will not be able to communicate more than with 20 - yu people). Tactics of holding meetings with voters, and also their forms are chosen a staff depending on campaign scale, for example:
if is elections to municipal legislative assembly, the candidate can manage to bypass all yards and to communicate to their inhabitants in live;
if the level of legislative assembly of the territorial subject of the federation, meetings in the yards not to manage any more, it is possible of course to manage to bypass practically all yards, even in the rural constituency, however optimum to combine meetings in the yards with meetings with a large number of voters on the basis of a recreation center or in the form of mass meetings, accompanying them with whenever possible concert program and dating to festive and to anniversaries;
the level of the State Duma already unambiguously assumes the organization of meetings only with the big mass of voters;
- Everything specified belongs also to levels of elections of chief executives.
- - When planning meetings of the candidate a staff has to be guided first of all by criteria of completeness of geographical and electoral coverage of the constituency. Separately it makes sense to organize
in more detail about the organization of big meetings and about the purposes which on them need to be fulfilled:
the Big meeting on the basis of a recreation center demands very thorough training. For the candidate the speech in which he will have to show to voters that he knows their problems prepares in advance, it is ready to work and that is very important, it is open for communication. The speech of the candidate very important element of a meeting, the candidate should not push away it voters, and make on the contrary the supporters. Therefore the group of supporters of the candidate needs to rehearse, fulfill the speech carefully on focus, both in sense of contents, and in sense of a manner of performance. The candidate needs to prepare definite answers on questions, inconvenient for it, which will be asked by the people who are specially prepared by opponents. It is necessary to prepare support group for a meeting. Very good style is the invitation in support group of the people having big social authority who after performance of the candidate also support his candidate with speeches. Often someone from these people speaks at a meeting to the candidate and presents the candidate in the speech to the audience telling them the positive characteristic of the candidate and the reason why he will vote for for him, the same person then conducts a meeting giving in turn the speech at first to the candidate, then representatives of support group. Other part of support group is responsible for the part of a meeting connected with communication with the population in style a question-answer. It is necessary to prepare the list for a meeting favorable to the candidate (underlining positive lines of his personality and the program) questions which then will be asked by members of support group. Very good style is that in support group for scoring of in advance prepared questions at such meeting the people who are approximately reflecting a social cut of the population in a meeting venue are invited. All this creates feeling of naturalness of development of process of communication at other participants of a meeting and masks that actually a meeting well an otrezhissirovana. Set to the candidate also all types of an orientation from positive to negative (but which the candidate can effectively answer) have to contain a question.
After communication can be presented to the voter the program of entertainment (usually performances of musical and song collectives or display of movies) for fixing of positive impression of a meeting. It is very important to form the program of entertainments taking into account specifics of the voter invited to a meeting, differently it can do serious harm to image of the candidate if disappoints come to a meeting.
So to a big meeting a staff has to:
to Fulfil ways of the invitation necessary on the number and social composition of number of voters on a meeting (usually correctly created network of propagandists easily copes with it and invited to cooperation in necessary quantity [it is better all] people with high social authority in a meeting venue, often voters come also because during a meeting the staff of the candidate will organize the interesting program of entertainments; at the enterprises the management and the candidate`s supporters among working invites to such meeting if they are, in this case the element if he is possible, the accompanying entertainment is also very important: concert, correctly organized tea drinking, etc.)
to Prepare the speech of the candidate and to fulfill it according to contents and on a performance manner taking into account specifics of the invited audience.
to Prepare the list of possible questions, inconvenient and convenient for the candidate, and to fulfill according to contents (taking into account specifics of the voter) and to a statement manner answers
to Prepare the support group consisting of moderators of public opinion and of people of the voters corresponding to a social cut in a meeting venue. to Prepare
if it is necessary for the speech of support for moderators of public opinion (usually they with ease do it, on that they and the people who deserved high social authority)
to Prepare the people asking convenient questions and having distributed these questions between them I am based on criterion of the maximum compliance of maintenance of a question to that social group which treats the asking question.
to Prepare group of the secretariat which will accept a question from the population, to conduct fixing of a meeting on paper, a photo and video cameras and to carry out other technical functions.
to Prepare sets of propaganda materials for distribution to participants of a meeting (it is desirable that it were not only booklets and newspapers with the program of the candidate and articles in his support, but also the materials containing information, useful to the voter, - beautiful pocket and wall calendars with the image of the candidate and the main slogans of his program, phonebooks, booklets the containing recipes, councils, etc.) to Prepare
interesting to the entertainments invited the program.
to Pay attention to safety issues and legal support.
A big meeting on the basis of meeting. It is the best of all to collect meeting under the pretext of discussion and searches of the solution of some problems, very essential for inhabitants of this district. In Russia at the population the culture of mass arrival on similar actions is developed very poorly unless is not in a condition of the sharp social conflict with the power or business. Therefore it is also necessary to approach the organization of meeting very carefully and carefully. Meeting against social explosion can lead to what the candidate will strongly reduce the shanets to win elections having opposed itself to an administrative resource and having incited against itself “elite“ this resource driving. Meeting against a problem, insufficiently actual for the population (and it at us patient) can set the task of the invitation to action of the mass meeting which is in advance prepared and paid one way or another for a staff. In the latter case meeting practically stops being the effective instrument of broadcast of information on the candidate for the independent voter, but all the same remains very effective information reason for mass media and creation of substantial materials for APM (Agitatsionno - Propagandistky Materials) for the purpose of ideological motivation of voters of the district to support the candidate on vyboa. Usual style of carrying out meeting is series of the performances devoted to a problem in the directed meeting is a candidate and moderators of public opinion, and also representatives whenever possible of all social groups for which the problems serving as an official pretext for meeting are important (often meetings are held in support of the candidate, and people are invited to meeting because on it actual problems as an order to the candidate will be discussed). Performance of the candidate is his keynote speech and it usually closes meeting. Performance of other participants is a scoring of problems and transfer to their candidate as a public order. Conducts meeting someone from authoritative people. During meeting propagandists distribute to participants of APM, in this case the program content of materials will be more natural and minimization of APM like useful tips not on a subject of meeting, recipes, etc. of
Very important element of meeting is its finishing part - adoption of the resolution. The resolution of meeting is the document offered its participants by organizers which contains the consolidated relation of participants to the problems sounded on meeting and the program of further actions for the solution of these problems. Participants of meeting adopt this resolution at the end, thereby there is their incorporation as actually they sign quite concrete social agreement and by that become its participants with the rights and duties stated in the resolution. Other voters, obtaining information on meeting from mass media and from the candidate`s APM, at the level of the consciousness either join, or do not join this agreement. Therefore the resolution is very important element for the sake of which always it makes sense to hold meeting during election campaign as it is in fact not just an order of voters, and the order success of performance of which depends on participation of voters. If voters addressed the candidate, adopted the general agreement on meeting to solve the problems, they have to will take care also of that it had such opportunity - to come to sites and to vote for it. Usually specifies in correctly written resolution that adopted it has to not only to come to vote, but also to bring with itself, it is as much as possible supporters, before it having agitated them that also they voted for the candidate. This process is called incorporation and mobilization the involvement in joint participation in process, by transfer of part of responsibility for the general result to all participants involved in process.
Often on meetings not simply vote for the resolution, and ask participants to be signed under its teksy that then to begin round of the population for collecting further signatures or to begin to collect these signatures in places of a mass congestion of citizens on pickets. All this does for fixing of result - for fuller incorporation of consciousness of voters, in which they are already participants of the general process, the success of which depends on that will choose or not the candidate around whose identity they united in the general attempt to solve the problems.
Very important elements of carrying out meeting is accurate working off of elements of safety by interaction with bodies of protection of a law and order on a case of attempts of unlawful failure of meeting and working off of all is lawful - compulsory procedures of the notification of local governments and election commission about the place, time and content of meeting.
3. Collecting orders at the population (a necessary element of campaign). An effective way of fixing of the gained trust at the voter during whom a peculiar feedback with the voter, by collecting its wishes to the candidate, their subsequent analysis and inclusion of the general moments in an election program of the candidate will be organized. Apply this technology after a work stage going to recognition of the candidate when the candidate already manages to carry out a third of the planned meetings with the population, and the population will manage to study the biography of the candidate, with history of promotion and basic provisions of its election program. Content of technology: propagandists carry to the population special forms - orders in which voters can leave the order - a wish to the candidate, with the subsequent in several days collecting these orders by round of the population by propagandists, or transfer of orders by voters to a staff or to the public reception candidate. Also forms can extend through public receptions of the candidate, on pickets, during meetings about the population. In the form there has to be surely an address where the voter can carry the order made by it and fields for filling of the text of an order. Sometimes the form is distributed in the form of the detachable coupon in the booklet or in the newspaper which are carried to the population in the course of apartment propaganda. The technology purpose - involvement of the voter in process of election campaign of the candidate by granting to the voter an opportunity to give to the candidate the wishes, requests or requirements to the person who won elections and received the corresponding position in system of legislative or executive power. The psychology of the person is arranged so that he most likely will not write an order to the candidate in which victory he does not trust and especially a victory of which does not wish. From here a conclusion follows that the quantity of collected orders, is the important characteristic of the election campaign illustrating efficiency. Even if the population not really believes in elections and to what some of candidates though something will be able to make chtoba to solve the population problems, but the staff and a network of the candidate managed to collect many orders is already big application for success of campaign as shows that the network of the candidate has very high social weight (consists of the people enjoying confidence and authority among voters [moderators of public opinion and people who express corporate interest of a certain social group possess such property] which propaganda they make), and the candidate, his personality and the program do not cause mass rejection and rejection by the voter (the candidate has a low anti-rating). On the basis of an order at the end of campaign the final election program of the candidate is formulated and published in mass media and APM.
Success of technology also, as well as in case of apartment propaganda, depends on system of payment. The propagandist, has to receive the sum proportional to the completed forms of orders brought to them even if friends will fill orders, acquaintances and the propagandist`s relatives, just at his request - it will already be result as will show that at the time of vote the propagandist, besides at the correct motivation, will be able to remove to vote for the candidate of all these people. Success of the propagandist, as the worker earning money during elective campaign if it motivates big group of people to participate in election campaign on the party of the candidate very important property of human relations. Skilled technologists very effectively use this property. Let`s give an example from practice, the district of the city And, at the candidate for a regional thought is not present in this area neither popularity, nor supporters; the area always supported representatives of the elite opposing that which the candidate enters. The problem of support and effective campaign of the candidate in this area was solved by technologists the next way, they found out that the director of the only school holding big authority on this area has a son who already long cannot find work. The proposal to become no, not the propagandist, but the foreman of propagandists in this area was made the son and good price-work payment, and also in the future cooperation with the deputy in case of the candidate`s victory was offered. As a result the most authoritative teachers of school became propagandists under his supervision, and the father and a family who were very much respected in the area the authority at any opportunity helped the son with work. The result of vote crossed out electoral statistics of the previous elections.
4. Evident propaganda (necessary element of campaign). Basic way to lift visual recognition the population of the candidate, short to inform the population on the program principles of the candidate, and also to create effect of continuous presence of the candidate. Ways of evident propaganda: placement of images of the candidate with elements of short ideologems of his campaign or a summary of the basic program principles on billboards; placement of ideologems and elements of the program of the candidate on banners and extensions; a pokleyka of posters with the image of the candidate and his ideologems in resolved and in the places which are not resolved by election commission; the pokleyka of leaflets with the biography, with the program and the candidate`s appeals, a pokleyka of stickers with various information on the candidate etc. of
Placement of images of the candidate and information on him on billboards, banners and extensions is paid from an election fund of the candidate and aims to inform of the visual image of the candidate and several his main policy statements the population. Often on billboards near the candidate place the image of the person of the district using the big authority among voters and place an appeal to vote for the candidate of his name. Can also other forms will be applied, so there is information that in one of regions the director of sausage plant decided to participate in election campaign and to lift the recognition placed on several billboards the image of sausage with an inscription for the signature: “Sausage will save the world“. The course turned out so successful that literally in several days all population of the district wanted one - to see quickly as the person who hung out the poster so incoincident with ordinary representations that very for a long time took looks and beat out from a habitual state consciousness of people it seen. Usually everything that does not coincide with the settled representations - stereotypes finally causes from society at first interest, and then aggression. However this case the candidate entered direct communication with inhabitants - began active campaign at the moment when interest did not manage to be replaced by aggression and finally campaign was won.
When planning campaign and planning according to locations of billboards, banners and extensions (usually near roads with a big mashinopotok, in places of a mass congestion of people, etc.) the staff has to consider that the number of such places is limited and opponents will apply for them, therefore there is a competition which the one who before others rents places, favorable to placement of big evident images, wins.
Posters of the A3 and A4 formats, stickers, leaflets belong to evident images of a small format. For their placement there is no need to rent places them it is possible to glue, anywhere. To avoid a total zakleyka of walls of houses and fences during election campaign which after the end of campaign will need to be washed away and torn off, attracting considerable resources of municipal services, local governments always try to allocate by release of resolutions specially places for a zakleyka and to forbid a zakleyka of other places. In practice however these bans are not observed. the Technology of a pokleyka demands
also as well as when carrying out apartment propaganda of observance of criteria of territorial and temporary coverage of the territory of the constituency. For a pokleyka or special crews which are equipped with motor transport, are formed by small ladders and carry out in the course of election campaign only this function or a pokleyka carry out in areas behind them fixed propagandists. The first way technologically more correct as combines the best controllability and efficiency due to mobility of special groups and narrow specialization. It is necessary to consider that often rivalry between staffs of different candidates for prevalence in number of the pasted posters develops into the most real war: at first glue one, right there on their posters or breaking their posters glue the following then the first come back and everything begins on new. Sometimes the opponent just pay the propagandists for the broken posters of opponents. In these conditions the mobile special groups equipped with ladders to glue posters at height inconvenient for failure by the ordinary person without ladder - the most effective tool.
we Will stop on psychological features of styles of a pokleyka. It is often possible to hear opinion that irritates people intensive with tow of posters and it increases an anti-rating. Practice however shows the return, big percent of people in Russia (it still call a bog) is guided not by the logical reflections about the program and the identity of the candidate, and by the feelings of strength of the candidate, one of manifestations of which for many is prevalence of posters of the candidate over posters of opponents.
For control of conscientiousness and operability of crews of a pokleyka as however and propagandists if they glue, the groups of check and control exercising the general visual control and periodic calculations of number of the pasted images of a small format are necessary.
Payment of pokleyshchik has to be the price-work, depending on quantity territories them stuck and from quality of a zakleyka (payment by the piece for the pasted evident images of a small format is very difficult, especially in conditions when opponents actively break them)
5. A literature rating on mailboxes and places of a mass congestion of the population (a necessary element of campaign). This way of obtaining information on the candidate already managed to become boring to the Russian population. Often already at the beginning of campaign mailboxes are hammered chock-full that leads to the fact that often after selection from its contents of payment documents on utilities all the rest without looking is thrown out in a refuse chute. It is noticed, the status of the settlement is higher (from the farm, to the regional center and the capital) the less its inhabitants show consideration for contents of the boxes. But all the same, the literature rating on boxes very important element of campaign as he along with apartment propaganda at which literature is given in a charge creates feeling of continuous presence of the candidate at consciousness of the voter and serves as the tool for distribution of information on the candidate among voters. It is noticed that the population always okhotny is interested in candidates whose campaign is more aggressive and whose APM gets in regularly various ways to the voter. And if the population it is possible to interest in the personality and the program of the candidate for time of apartment propaganda, at meetings, in materials mass media, then and the candidate`s APM from mailboxes will not be thrown out at once.
in More effective way which practices even more often now shows redemption of special numbers or the place in issues of some local newspaper which enjoys popularity at the population. In this case the newspaper is carried as usual by a delivery service, and inhabitants who pay for a subscription, naturally do not throw out the newspaper. For those who does not subscribe to the newspaper additional circulations which reach in boxes propagandists - are ordered from this newspaper besides less chances to be thrown out as it just causes interest in the inhabitant who did not write out it and suddenly found in the box. In big cities this way has a shortcoming - high cost of placement of materials in the newspaper with a high rating of interest at the population.
the Rating of part of AP (agitatsionno - propaganda) materials in places of a mass congestion of the population very important auxiliary way of coverage of the population the information streams containing information on the candidate and his program. Such places are shops, stops of motor transport, the place of a congestion of citizens in turns in savings banks, institutions zhilishchno - the social sphere, etc.
the Task of the technologist who is responsible for conducting campaign and the technologist who is responsible for creation and placement of materials about the candidate to choose optimum “financial opportunities of the candidate“ -“ quality of delivery to information population“ a configuration.
In case the rating is carried out by propagandists, is necessary the subsequent control of finding of APM in boxes. Payment is carried out in a price-work form.
6. Public reception
the Important tool allowing to organize feedback with voters, monitoring of a situation in the district. Substantially this technology is the room rented in a certain place of the constituency to which the hired manager whose main functions is collection of information arriving from the population is put, transfer of this information in the central staff and also if it is necessary function on a communication oposredovaniye between the voters wishing to initiate communication with the purpose of the solution of some problem them concerning, and the central staff answering this communication in shape to them chosen (for example, the voter writes the letter to the candidate with a request to help it in the form of legal consultation, the candidate, and is more true the technologist conducting campaign having obtained information from office - the manager about existence of such address charges to the lawyer of campaign or to write in writing the answer or to come out to the place and on the basis of a public reception will meet the voter written the letter - this meeting will be organized by the worker of a public reception). For achievement of system effect in the constituency it is necessary to organize a network of public receptions. This technology becomes obligatory in case of application as a network of crews of professional propagandists.
7. Picket (important element of campaign). Form of street propaganda. It is applied in places of a mass congestion of people. Consists of several prepared propagandists distributing propaganda literature. Participants of picket have to be whenever possible the professionals able to agitate in the form of conversation. Pickets cannot capture all population of the district, however this technology can at correct system (in the place, time and a binding to campaign stages) the organizations to be an effective source to information for its most active part of voters. Frequency of application of pickets usually is chosen at the beginning of election campaign depending on electoral and social maps of the district, and also depending on the untwisted image of the candidate (the more socially aggressive plans this image, the bigger it is necessary to carry out street protests including pickets). The picket distributing the propaganda materials which are not containing information, interesting to the population, and causing rejection in the population is harmful (The Striking example election campaign of RPZh on elections to the Moscow City Council in 2005, on the other hand distribution of local phonebooks during the elections to the Moscow Region Duma of 2001 containing propaganda materials of the candidate in the city Railway and the city of Reutov had great success in the population, despite quite faded program of the candidate).
8. Direktmayl - rather new word in selective technologies which was successfully applied, for example, before elections of 2007. in Stavropol Krai. The mayor of Stavropol dispatched several years by means of congratulation different mail on target audiences of voters, dating these mailings for holidays and anniversaries. Through the same mailings at a measure feedback with inhabitants who wrote to the answer about the problems was established, often they just thanked the mayor for attention the paid attention. Direktmayla, and also system charity of fund of a measure of Stavropol brought it a huge positive rating during elective campaigns. So, during campaign of 2007 in the State Duma of Stavropol Krai, exactly thanks to these technologies the Just Russia headed by the mayor Stavropol inflicted devastating electoral defeat over the United Russia. During election campaign effectively it is possible to apply direktmayl, for example, to mailings of congratulations of the candidate to members of certain social groups on their festive dates. This type of work with the population can yield very notable electoral result if to begin it to use systemically long before the beginning of election campaign.
9. Propaganda by phone. Now in big cities, in the conditions of total use of on-door speakerphones and mistrust of the population try to apply to strangers when it becomes almost impossible to get in an entrance sometimes technology of propaganda of the population for means of the organization a stake - the centers which are ringing round the population of the constituency on telephone bases. This technology has very disputable efficiency as is considered by most of voters as unauthorized invasion on their personal territory (they gave phone to nobody, especially in order that someone called them and tried to flog uninteresting information). However at application of telephone call-downs within working off during campaign of the actions devoted to the problems concerning most of voters allows to transfer in passing with information on a solution information and on the candidate who undertook the solution of this problem - call-downs for the invitation to the actions devoted to attempts to solve a problem not bad work.
Especially a stake - the center becomes useful when it is rung by the voters interested in some information, actual for them, in this case the scope for passing informing for the purpose of propaganda opens. (By the way that designates the word propaganda - it designates action on information transfer from one or group of people to other group of people or one person, and this transfer it is characterized by the following parameters: it is a lot of information - few listeners. Other form of political technologies - promotion on the contrary has characteristics: it is a lot of listeners - not enough information. However in both actions the purpose one - influence on a valuable scale of listeners on which they estimate the target phenomena of world around, in our case of the candidate, his program, candidates of opponents and their program. The actions directed to increase of a valuable assessment of the candidate and his program are a positive component of election campaign, the estimates of persons of opponents and their programs directed to decrease - a negative component of election campaign or as still it is accepted to call - a sneer company)
10. The programming polls. Are carried out for the purpose of development and fixing at the population of a certain view of this or that problem for motivation to vote for the candidate. This result is achieved by specially made set of questions which on the one hand give visibility of freedom of a voleizliyaniye of the voter, and with another are picked up so that as a result of the answer to them the voter comes to programmable polls to conclusions. This very terrible weapon, though not really pure. Poll can be done as directly on the street, and by phone or the Internet.
11. Placement of materials about the candidate for the Internet. This way is for the present poorly effective in Russia that the Internet is a little mastered by representatives of the main voting social groups. However its popularity grows together with audience the Internet. The main ways of placement of information on election campaign of the candidate and the organization of communication of the candidate with the interested users are at the moment blogs and social networks. Through the blog it is also possible to organize operational management of campaign and informing the supporters.
12. Work with moderators of public opinion (necessary element of campaign). Besides direct methods of propaganda of electorate there is a set of the mediated methods which often give much more bigger effect, but demand bigger flexibility, knowledge of psychological features of the human person, social properties and social differentiation of the voting society, and often a big ingenuity to force all this to work for success of election campaign. For example, work with socially organized groups or moderators of public opinion (or on simple the persons having big authority among voters of the district or among their part). Usually at such way the candidate, or his representative, one way or another motivates leaders of social groups or moderators public on support with them and voters for whom their opinion the big authority has, the candidate during the vote. Socially - organized groups can be examples: Cossacks, national diasporas, societies of disabled people, employees of the enterprises, public organizations etc. Can also be moderators of public opinion: the participants of elections of lower level having the steady electorate or the persons having big social authority. (For example, in campaign 2006 - 2007 in the State Duma of Stavropol Krai technologists of Laboratory very effectively used a system mistake of the United Russia. In the territory of the district at the end of 2005 there took place elections of municipal level on which elected both heads, and deputies of the Village Councils all of the won heads executive power forced to enter the United Russia, having left behind a board of political process all of them opponents who however had big total electoral weight, than the acting heads. The arrangement of granting to it in the future a brand of Just Russia for participation in municipal and regional elective process became motivation of support of the candidate who was conducted by technologists of Laboratory, and also supports of party Just Russia. Support of Just Russia to party and a convincing victory of the candidate from 38% result (naturally the result consisted not only of electorates of participants of recent municipal elections, but their contribution became a powerful brick in so high electoral result)) became a result 52%.