Selective technologies: Ideology of campaign and program of the candidate.
it is necessary to understand working off As ideology of campaign during electoral process of the main motivational incentives for the population to vote in enough for the candidate or to make other actions. The part of these incentives can be declared in the program of the candidate - so-called public provisions of the program of the candidate, and the part of incentives can not be disclosed and even on the contrary to disappear from public publicity. The motivation fulfilled during campaign can rely on the main social inquiries of the voting population or its part (which then is called electorate of the candidate, obvious or potential); can just rely on mercenary aspirations of the population - or in other words it is staked on bribery of the voter or bribery of moderators of public opinion (it is not obligatory money, positions are promised, situation, an opportunity to resolve issues etc.) ; can lean on stereotypes of perception of surrounding reality and property of consciousness (typical structure I) local population (for example, collective and individual type of consciousness of the typical average voter of the district - in Russia for many it is characteristic to support on elections the political forces which are associated at the population with the central power, even when they are negatively estimated by the population in general); can fulfill manifestations of the group social conflicts in local society of the constituency; etc. - at society there are a lot of freedom degrees (characteristics which speak about properties of this society and which reflect prichinno - investigative communication between the phenomena the occurring in this society and social aspirations of certain typical or not typical members and groups of this society - than bigger scale and the phenomenon is valid, especially the global and strong motivational moments to behavior are the cornerstone of these phenomena), having studied which it is possible to understand what mechanisms put them in action. These mechanisms in fact - the motivational reasons, characteristic of the population of the constituency, which induce the population to prove one way or another - to work (it can be even kitchen talk); typical ways of action (for example, in England fans arrange riots when their team loses - the reason external - loss of team, internal - a protest against the rational, absorbing identity society; action carriers football fans; typical way of action - the open aggression directed against other society); action carriers - active part of the population which begins to work; ways of distribution of information on action among the population or ways of distribution of the action; degree and nature of the latent (hidden) or open reaction by the inactive population to this action. Studying of the properties of various local or global social phenomena which occurred or occurring periodically in society of the constituency, expert and sociological polls allow the skilled technologist to make the card of social inquiries of the population, the card and history of the motivational reasons bringing or leading to certain socially important consequences (it is not necessarily activity of the population, for example, residents of the constituency constantly exposed to natural disasters, or undergone time but to disaster in very big scale, will have accurately expressed mass phobia of repetition of the similar phenomena and respectively extremely negative assessment of everything that reminds them of this phenomenon or is associated with a negative from this phenomenon), and also the card of typical reactions of the population of the district or its separate parts on emergence or existence of these reasons. The analysis of the obtained information is necessary for forming of the necessary finally scheme for motivation of the voting population of the constituency which has to lead to result which is put by the candidate (the candidate a setup, the candidate the doubler, the candidate the engine etc.) or before the candidate within elective campaign.
The principles of creation of this scheme are very simple:
1. rationalism - only the motivational reasons corresponding to social properties of the candidate (the status, professional skills, properties of character etc.) are fulfilled and to its opportunities (financial, temporary, organizational etc. - allowing to fulfill completely the corresponding motivational mechanism) and bringing to the biggest on coverage (and it is optional on manifestation force - often it is avoided on the contrary) to the social phenomena - the phenomena which cover the maximum number of members of society of the constituency who usually go to vote (studying of society of the constituency in the plane of reaction to elections - “To go to vote“ [percent of an exit to vote, various social groups at campaign of an appropriate level] - is an indispensable condition)
2. completeness - the motivational reasons capable to capture necessary percent of the population for achievement during campaign of the planned purposes are fulfilled.
3. sufficiency - for working off of all mechanism motivating the voter for very significant reason for it to come and vote for the candidate or to make other target action, within campaign a framework of campaign it is necessary to spend efforts, time and means, therefore it is good to fulfill all motivational mechanisms it is impossible - the necessary set is chosen.
4. adequacy and flexibility - compliance of the offered ideological scheme for motivation of the population which has to lead to the actions of necessary percent predicted as the campaign purposes from total number of voters real mechanisms to processes (character and scale which often just do not give in to the preliminary forecast) need to be controlled by the events in society working in society and especially at the time of elective campaign constantly by means of social measurements and studying of the events by experts. Therefore the scheme has to mean a possibility of corrections including cardinal for the purpose of its adaptation with reality.
As a result there is a following: the description of the social groups which are a part of the choosing society of the district, motivation which it will be fulfilled; the plan of contact actions of work with each of social groups and with society in general; description of nature of these actions; a set of ideologems - information messages (messadzhy) which it is necessary during these contact actions and through mass media to ottranslirovat to target social groups; the plan of carrying out social measurements for the purpose of detection of properties of process - course of election campaign of the candidate; set of preliminary public provisions of an election program of the candidate. The ideology of the beginning of campaign is created.
Final ideology of campaign is formed by the time of the end of collecting orders at the population on the basis of which the final public election program of the candidate is published in APM. By this moment technologists have to by means of analytical processing of the feedback arriving from the population; sociological polls; monitoring of mass media; studying of results of the taken place contact actions of propaganda of the population; actions of staffs of opponents and any other adequate (there are also not adequate - like astrological) ways of studying of a state and properties of society of the constituency to create the final set of mechanisms of motivation of the population capable to lead to the planned result of campaign. The ideology campaign gains rigidity and further all efforts concentrate on maximum efficiency of working off of the mechanisms of motivation of the voter planned to realization.
At the end we will describe a public element of ideology of campaign - consisting of two necessary elements: public ideologems - messadzhy broadcast openly on behalf of the candidate and group of the supporters supporting him to other population and the program of the principles of actions and actions of the candidate stated in the form of consecutive provisions in case of receiving an elective office by it. Ideologems usually in a short look are located in AMP and on evident materials (billboards, banners, posters, stickers, leaflets for a pokleyka etc.) they have to express the basic principles and characteristics of the program, social status (in sense of the social role fulfilled during campaign, for example, the governor`s representative) and the identity of the candidate. The mechanism of their formulation is described above, and final selection and the statement it is desirable to carry out by results of carrying out focus - groups, at least from the candidate`s supporters. Provisions of the program is a consecutive statement of the principles of acceptance and implementation of the planned socially important decisions the candidate within execution of functions and the list by it actions which it plans to carry out, in case of election on an elective office. Formulates this list usually on the basis of the sociological researches and expert polls devoted to identification of the main inquiries and requirements of the population of the constituency and contains, respectively, as it was mentioned in the previous offer, the principles of implementation of provisions of the plan and the plan of the candidate for the solution of the main problems and upholding of interests of the population of the district. These principles and the plan have to be combined naturally with the image chosen by the candidate and his staff within carrying out elective campaign that is with the personality, the social status and professional skills of the candidate. At the initial stages of campaign devoted to working off of the purpose to lift recognition of the candidate and interest in it and its program from first of all voters of the target groups which are a part - potential electorate of the candidate there is no technological need for a complete statement of the elective program of the candidate, it is enough to place its parts in the text of APM and to sound them during propaganda, in mass media and at the candidate`s meetings with the population. At this stage of provision of the program, take a test control from the population. By the time of the end of collecting orders from the population, there is a possibility of the publication of the final program of the candidate, natural to consciousness of the voter, by results of orders of voters and the candidate`s meetings with the population. By the same moment technologists on the basis of studying of properties of electoral process reveal what provisions from the initial list effectively work for motivation of the voter what were not actual - often the reality generates additions and considerable change of contents of the initial program of the candidate. The final document extends during the propaganda wave planned for its distribution, it is desirable to do it taking into account actions of opponents for prevention of operation of similar provisions in the programs by them.
Description of the term Ideology: IDEOLOGY - the part of outlook covering the social phenomena connected with the relations between various social groups; the system of the political, economic, social, legal, philosophical, moral, religious, art views and ideas reflecting interests of certain classes, parties, the nations, the states, groups of people taking the form of collective beliefs. And. possesses relative independence and exerts a great influence on development of society as gets into all spheres of human life and has huge organizing and tselenapravlyayushchy force.
(Explanatory dictionary of obshchestvovedchesky terms. N. E. Yatsenko. 1999)