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Appointment and functions of captures in a duel of a horting

Considering gripping equipment of hands in the mixed single combat a horting it should be noted that duels of a full contact sport are followed by fast change of fighting situations and a variety of the gripping attacking and defensive actions from both rivals. The big arsenal of the resolved shock equipment in a horting is allowed to control a distance and to keep the rival at arm`s length, but until rapprochement and transition to a throw. In this situation of near fight without capture there cannot be no technical action, if you continue to strike blows without turning into fight, sooner or later you will appear on a floor of a hort (the competitive platform) after rigid capture and the rival`s throw.

Of course control of shock extremities of the opponent has to be constant, and upon transition to a near shock distance it is necessary to be ready to apply convenient capture to the subsequent throw. To carry out broskovy reception, it is necessary to make capture at first. One of main the equipment - tactical tasks in a duel is timely application of captures. Capture should be studied in several options. If the rival skilled, he does not allow the forward to take convenient capture, and in that case reception will not turn out. Captures can be applied as to the attacking actions - performance of a throw or transfer of the rival to orchestra seats, and protective actions stopping the attacking actions of the opponent on various phases of their performance: in a situation of shock attack of the rival, in the moment of gripping action of the rival, or for prevention of the attacking taking of the rival.

of the Technician of captures in a horting is rather various and includes captures for a neck, extremities, a trunk, the combined captures which are used for development of the attack, and also for neutralization of attacks of the rival. In a preparatory dozakhvatny phase it is focused on the shock equipment of hands and legs, various blocks and supports which are taking away and forcing down receptions which quite often are followed by captures of the next part of a body of the rival and transfer of fight to orchestra seats. Improvement of gripping equipment gives the chance to develop the captures, that is individual gripping equipment which best of all answers the anatomist - to morphological data of a certain athlete. In each case the way of capture which you will choose, and capture force is important. Powerful sure capture after which there is a planned acquired attack by a throw always will give advantage and will not allow the rival to come out capture easily. At gripping actions fitness of hands, special endurance of muscles of forearms and fortress of fingers is very important. Fingers are the main fascinating tool, they have by nature perfect innervation and sensitive receptors of touch which transmit absolutely reliable signal to a brain of position of a body and the rival`s extremities, about force of reciprocal actions, about mistakes during the moving and an opportunity to continue attack. Special endurance of forearms provides at the same time long control of the rival in an exchange of blows and mutual capture during all duel. If big force is spent for capture, then hands are strained, and as a result tactics of a duel has protective character. The most effective way of capture when hands are relaxed, force of capture concentrates in fingers - a little finger, anonymous and average. The way of effective capture can be acquired only long training. The skilled athlete is accustomed to regulate intensity of capture independently. The rival in most cases feels his capture, but does not manage to react correctly to attack and when he tries to attack, faces strong blocking of hands reliable captures.

On the specifics any your captures have to prevent takings of the rival or began not allow him the attacking actions. Timely captures break carrying out the attacking reception while the opponent reached a starting position for its carrying out. But the attacks of an extremity of the rival intercepted by your capture on the course also stop carrying out its reception after the beginning of attack or in the middle of attack. A certain way to learn to resist in time the gripping actions to the attacking takings of the rival is thorough studying most these attacking captures. If you know how to apply similar receptions, you will know when the opponent can use them against you. For this reason this method needs to be studied and improved constantly. If the opponent uses the principle of fast movement, it means, he seeks to reach to near of sides of your body. Means to you it is necessary to stop it capture of the next hand. If he seized you by an elbow or a shoulder and pulls to himself, it is necessary to pull the side of a body of the same name back back that the rival lost an opportunity to operate you due to capture. If it moves aside, you need to intercept an initiative, pacing in the same direction, as it to outstrip and most to leave towards his back. If you are not in time, then it is possible to return itself advantage, having arranged the hand outside of that his hand which captured you. Thus, it cannot move any more around you and therefore you at this moment have tactical advantage to transition to the capture and a throw or can just give a series of blows for a rupture of a distance. One more way to resist to movements of the rival in capture consists in interception of an initiative in respect of timeliness when the opponent pulls you to himself to reach your case for striking a blow or more dense capture, you need to move towards aside. It is necessary to move then when it begins to pull. This movement destabilizes it. In the created situation you can capture him for a neck a hand and develop under blow a knee in the head and a throw a footboard with the subsequent transfer to orchestra seats. Such advancing elements of gripping equipment meet constantly and have to be fulfilled at the subconscious level. The principles of performance of captures in a duel of a horting differ in simplicity and reliability. They provide an optimality of all technical actions of your body. When carrying out captures it is necessary to show the maximum attentiveness, to notice any intentions of the opponent and to react in due time to his movements, to expedite capture and it is powerful, the speed of the movement of hands has to be maximum that the rival could not avoid it. When performing capture by one of highlights need of a good steady fighting position is, and also when moving in capture this stability has to remain. Capture of any of parts of the rival is carried out by means of the balanced work of all body, hands, a trunk, legs therefore it is necessary to develop dexterity and a movement skill of all parts of a body, flexibility, mobility and coordination in work as each of its parts, and also to combine this work with control of the breath. Before performance of gripping attack it is necessary to define absolutely precisely the moment in which the rival is weakest for its reflection or in general began to lose balance. Gripping attack often successfully begins after effective shock attack, having chosen a suddenness moment the athlete after a series of blows passes to capture of a neck and the case and carries out a throw or having brought down the rival in orchestra seats. Without releasing the capture taken in a rack he can continue to attack productive technology of deduction or, having changed capture, transition to painful or suffocating reception. Thus, as soon as you felt the weak place in defense of the opponent, take powerfully and surely capture and develop attack with the increasing force and a pressure to its full outcome as far as the opponent to you will allow to continue it. The following condition for successful attack with application of capture is an ability to quickly change capture and to pass from one receptions and methods to others, to fulfill skill of recapture, and also ability to get out of a difficult situation at the time of capture you by the rival, ability to leave capture and to pass to an exchange of blows, or in case of need, to give in on reception to come to the leading position in an orchestra seats situation with the favorable attacking capture, having finished equipment with painful reception or suffocation of the rival. The important tactical moment consists in preparation of the crown victorious reception connected with removal of the rival in the necessary situation convenient for capture of decisive capture, for example:

- display of the right lateral blow in a femoral muscle of the rival, allegedly zameshkayas and having left a leg on a hip, at the time of pass of the rival to you in legs for capture of the left leg, you immediately go for powerful capture of a neck of the rival under the left shoulder, and capturing legs its case carry out suffocating reception “guillotine“ by capture of a neck from above. In comparison with your capture of the rival`s neck from above, his capture of the right leg for a hip is considered in a horting technique losing, your analysis of a duel situation means at capture of advantageous capture it was true.

One of the main receptions at capture of the attacking capture consists in ability to use levers. For example if you attack the rival in orchestra seats painful reception on a leg - infringement of an Achilles tendon, and the rival has big weight on 10 - 15 kg and it managed to take also reciprocal capture on your leg, then the result of attack will depend on the physical force and the angle of application of force operating on your and his leg, but not from technology of performance of reception. And the fortress of his sinew and density of a gastrocnemius muscle of a leg at it can be higher, than at you, and you should think not of the termination of a duel painful reception on his leg, and of an exit from its capture. Therefore the best option of attack of such opponent will be capture of his left hand between legs on the lever of an elbow joint as the left hand in case of work not with the lefthander is less strengthened, and anyway it is weaker than your back which you will pull a hand on the lever capture it for a forearm and a wrist between legs, striking a basin the rival`s shoulder up. Therefore, the choice of capture applying the tactical analysis to attack you made correctly.

the Following condition of successful carrying out reception with use of gripping equipment is absolute commitment and a spirit on positive result of attack, that is morally you need to be sure of the action and, having shown all strength of mind in carrying out reception after capture capture, you will be able to finish reception of broskovy equipment, rigidly attacking the opponent, to carry out painful reception or suffocation of the rival, concentrating strength of mind and having the huge will to win, you can win even against the one who is stronger than you physically. Many cases when the strong-willed and victoriously adjusted athlete won a victory over the big and strong opponent are known. Having carried out by

the analysis of purpose of gripping equipment in a horting duel, it should be noted that captures and holding straps which are applied in the first round of a complex duel of a horting in 12 - ti untsovy gloves significantly differ from performance of captures by a naked hand without glove in the second round. This skill is the cornerstone of specialization of a horting - to be able to work in gloves and whenever possible to carry out gripping actions, and also to receive the most important skill of work as a naked hand without glove when the hand is especially sensitive and capable to carry out captures for any parts of a body that gives important skill of self-defense by a naked hand, bringing closer these situations to real fight in life.

2. Classification of captures in the technical section of a horting

All captures applied in a horting duel can be classified by a functional orientation. According to the main functions gripping actions differ on attacking, protective, intermediate or preliminary and mutual therefore the characteristic of capture in a technique of a horting is considered from a position of direct practical application, as led to definition of kinds of captures of the program of training of a horting. On application of capture in a duel distinguish:

- the attacking capture;

- protective capture;

- preliminary or intermediate capture;

- mutual capture.

The characteristic of the attacking capture.

the Attacking capture is the active gripping action taken from in advance prepared optimum situation with the purpose to suppress activity of the rival and to develop own attack, having carried out removal of the rival from balance or transfer of a duel to orchestra seats bright or sbivy. The attacking capture can be followed with success by shock actions of a hand, free from capture, shock actions of knees, obviva of legs, sbiva of the case or a podbivama of a basin under a supporting leg or a coxofemoral joint of the rival, using short-term passivity of the rival or instability of his fighting rack. Often the athlete attacking capture acquires

to perfection of crown reception for sure broskovy attack with continuation of the attacking capture in orchestra seats for carrying out deduction, painful or suffocating reception. If this capture is not its basic and fulfilled, then in this case the athlete can not always perform real technical operations and, therefore, loses an opportunity to come surely on a throw with the greatest possible end result.

For working off of the attacking habitual captures for carrying out throws needs to carry out educational duels with different the opponent, repeating the same elements and captures.

In many situations of a duel the attacking capture follows right after successfully carried out shock series in the head and the rival`s case, and also at the time of mutual advantageous capture when short-term loss of balance of the rival or an imbalance of its fighting rack you use for fast capture of the attacking capture and a powerful subcollar on a throw. it is also expedient to

to take the Attacking capture in the moment of successful change of preliminary capture with attacking, using a technical or tactical mistake of the rival. Having taken

control intermediate capture for the purpose of investigation of a steady position of the rival or investigation of his movement at the time of the conclusion it in preliminary capture, you saw its unpreparedness, confusion, fussiness, weakening of attention, in that case immediately execute recapture with preliminary in active attacking - and it is resolute and powerful, having grouped a body in the necessary direction, you carry out calling or a subcollar on a throw, preparing continuation of attack in orchestra seats.

Practically in all favorable situations of orchestra seats the attacking capture of orchestra seats is a consequence of the successful attacking capture in a rack.

Characteristic of protective capture.

Protective capture aims to neutralize actions of the opponent and to provide a safe or advantageous position for continuation of a duel. In many situations of a duel of a horting protective capture undertakes at the time of shock attack of the rival. At the very beginning of the shock movement by protective capture it is possible to neutralize the shock movement of an extremity or, being ready and adjusted on interception of a shock extremity, it is quite probable to take a shock extremity - a hand or a leg in the middle of the movement when the support or the block stopped shock action, and the shock extremity did not begin a reset of a fighting rack yet.

at the time of a subcollar or calling of the rival on a throw protective capture is possible to carry out counterreception, and in some situations, having intercepted broskovy attack of the rival, it is possible to use the moment of a short-term stop for interception of hands in new more comfortable position of the attacking capture and with a sure amplitude, having directed inertia of all a body, to execute a counterthrow already in the attacking capture, having prepared continuation of attack in orchestra seats.

a trunk or an extremity will give Ability to work in protective style and to be ready at any time to stop the movement of the rival protective capture for a neck, to the athlete of bigger confidence in the moments of control of attacks of the rival.

Constraining pass to legs protective capture for a neck from above, it is possible easily pereytand in the attacking actions by suffocating reception. Having caught in the first round of a horting a shock hand of the rival in a glove under a shoulder protective capture, it is possible to strike blows with a free hand in the head and to pass to a throw through a back with capture of a hand under a shoulder.

a Special role is played by protective captures in fight of orchestra seats when the rival has a primary position. In this case, having neutralized a shock hand of the rival protective capture for a wrist, it is necessary to begin an exit in the top situation podbivy a basin and to dump from itself the rival rotation of the case towards the taken hand.

In an equivalent situation of a duel, the captures intended to bear protective function, at any time can turn into the attacking action due to use of movement of body weight and inertia of the case. Favorable protective capture is always reliable and strong. At capture of protective capture in any situation it is necessary to track existence of a steady position, steadiest support of a fighting rack on both legs and placements of the center of gravity in the middle of a support. At the time of an advancing of the rival in capture and transition to attack this condition is not obligatory, the main thing - reliability of the attacking capture and commitment and confidence in performance of all broskovy amplitude from the beginning of a throw (a subcollar on a throw) before fixing of the rival on a floor or carrying out exact shock attack in orchestra seats. At capture of protective capture by hands or a hand and a neck, do not disregard work of legs of the rival, and at pass to legs or interception of blow of a leg and capture of protective capture for a leg or both legs, try to control the movement and an arrangement of hands of the rival. Protective capture in a duel plays the important stabilizing role as of you, and from the opponent therefore beginning the movement on a throw in the attacking capture, you have to foresee option of protection of the rival protective capture, and its possible counterattack. At active defense it is possible to make protective captures which disturb, and sometimes and at all do not give to the opponent the chance to attack neither in blows, nor throws. The same captures can be used protected for attack on the opponent some main throws. Being prepared for a duel, the skilled hortingist considers what shock combinations and throws his rival and by what reciprocal protective captures he expects to be protected in this case will attack most likely and how plans to attack it in the counterattacking actions. Proceeding from it, to each duel and to each future rival it is necessary to pick up the corresponding protective captures. Using a certain protective capture, tactically in the same duel will competently diversify methods of conducting fight, and especially protective actions. In all cases rigid and reliable protective capture distracts strengths of the opponent from the reception which is carried out by him on overcoming of the mechanical obstacle created by your capture on the way of performance of this reception. In cases when the opponent repeatedly tries to carry out the same reception, protective capture can be used for a hassling of its force, and also protective capture it is possible to distract attention of the opponent from the prepared reception, in this case having made protective capture, the athlete the actions has to show to the opponent that it accepts result of a duel and that it by means of such capture keeps this result of a duel. Loss of vigilance of the rival at some point has to be punished by rigidly your unexpected resolute attacking pressure. Having dug

protective capture. This directed attacking technical action of the athlete has to be carefully planned after carrying out investigation and the analysis of methods of protection of the rival against your certain attack. For example, having repeated at the beginning of the first round of a duel twice with great dispatch - broskovy attack: left, right direct, left from below - transition to a throw to the left through a back capture of a neck, but without carrying out a throw, and having stopped an intermediate position on protective taking of the rival for your trunk behind, and having taken it for a neck in the dangerous provision of an inclination, release capture and leave. It with pleasure will depart on a safe distance, having exempted the head from capture. In the following shock attack instead of the application of effort for a throw through a back, come on a back footboard, having prepared dense capture for implementation of full deduction in orchestra seats capture of a neck and hand under a shoulder. Reception for certain will become unexpected for your rival as he subconsciously was going to parry after shock attack your throw through a back counterreception in the opposite direction. Having come on a back footboard, you only by a tactical method carried out break of protective taking of the rival for a trunk against the preparing throw through a back. In such a way, modeling independently situations of gripping attacks and protection, it is necessary to fulfill various options of breaks of protective capture in uchebno - training duels and to check skill of break of protection in competitive fights.

Characteristic of preliminary or intermediate capture.

Preliminary capture bears the controlling function, it can be not notable, but from preliminary or intermediate capture the unexpected blow can be struck by a free hand or the unexpected throw which you will not manage to answer is carried out. Usual purpose of intermediate or preliminary capture, is prospecting actions, prodergivaniye, probing of stability of a fighting rack of the rival, the capture taken for the purpose of control and the subsequent interception, creating inconveniences to the rival and giving the chance at fast interception at least one hand to strike blow with a free hand or to execute a throw from non-standard situation from which you can not expect the beginnings of the attacking actions.

In horting duel situations where practically all natural arsenal of blows is resolved, preliminary capture happens the most short-term and often happens mutual. Preliminary captures give comfortable starting positions for the subsequent attacking captures and carrying out with them broskovy attacks. Beginning with

rapprochement with the rival, you can try to take its the next to you the wrist of a hand of the same name preliminary capture and to pay attention to its reaction: if pulls out a hand giving on itself - it is possible to strike a series of blows in the head with transition to a throw if unscrews a wrist on the place, showing stability of a rack and force of a hand, it is possible to begin a throw with capture of a neck or pass to legs at once if rushes thoughtlessly to attack in an exchange of blows, it is possible to leave the line of attack or to come from outside and to hit from a long range with a shin on a hip or in the case sideways. This analysis of a situation of a duel, not haste in change of a position at preliminary mutual capture will allow you to control the painful points, stability of a fighting rack and an opportunity to wait for a technical mistake of the rival then with the most probable damage to his body to carry out shock attack or surely to enter on a throw. Preliminary (intermediate) capture has to be at the same time both soft, and rigid, and short and viscous, have sufficient sensitivity for information transfer about the opponent in the shortest time. Intermediate passive capture can instantly turn into the attacking active capture as soon as you assessed a duel situation as favorable for carrying out attack.

Characteristic of mutual capture.

If to carry out the analysis gripping the technician, carried out for amount of time of a duel, then we will receive result that practically all gripping actions throughout a duel take place in mutual capture. As soon as one athlete from shock equipment passes in broskovy with the attacking capture, it gets to protective capture at once. Such situation can last throughout attack in a rack and proceed in orchestra seats. Fast change of situations of orchestra seats and an exchange of blows in mutual captures is the main technology of maintaining a duel lying. In situations of mutual capture in a rack the main issue is resolved: who will come to an advantageous top position of orchestra seats, and who will remain below in protective and more difficult situation? In mutual capture everything depends on what capture is held by each of athletes. All mutually provisions of takings of both athletes can create the following of three situation, significant for the athlete:

- advantageous situation;

- equivalent situation;

- a losing position. we Will carry out by

the characteristic of each of these provisions.

Advantageous provision of capture. The advantageous provision of mutual capture gives the chance to the athlete successfully to carry out optimum technical actions in the attacking capture even at reciprocal protective taking of the opponent.

Equivalent provision of capture. The equivalent provision of mutual capture gives the chance to successfully carry out technical actions of a duel equally to both athletes.

Losing position of capture. The losing position of mutual capture does not give the chance of carrying out the fulfilled equipment, leaving defense option protective capture against aspiration of the rival to successfully carry out the attack.

In a situation of mutual capture a lot of things depend on readiness of athletes therefore the skilled and well prepared hortingist, having got into a losing position of capture, can due to movements standing and change of captures to pass into advantageous situation.

Being in the equivalent provision of capture, each of rivals has equal chances to take favorable capture and by that to transfer the rival to a losing position of capture in which to begin the acquired attack.

On the end result of a duel in a horting technique captures are classified by an orientation as:

- broskovy;

- holding;

- painful;

- suffocating.

Broskovy captures are carried out for performance of a throw in a rack. Suffocating captures are carried out for carrying out deduction, can prepare in a rack and proceed in orchestra seats. Submission holds are carried out for carrying out painful reception on the rival`s extremity. Suffocating captures are carried out for the rival`s neck for carrying out suffocation.

Captures are classified under motive characteristics of the attacking hand as:

- active;

- passive.

At active capture the hand performs any technical operation. At passive capture the hand is in a gripping state on the attacked part of a body of the rival in the controlling static situation.

Gripping distances in a duel of a horting

Specifics of the mixed single combat at capture in taking of the rival demand preliminary rapprochement at the time of neutralization of shock actions. It is possible to avoid blow and to turn into capture safely in fractions of a second having defined a necessary distance. Distances for use of captures can quickly change during a duel, but at well fulfilled methods of captures all of them are brought together to dense near fight which purpose - to get advantage over the rival, having carried out a throw, deduction, painful or suffocating reception. For successful realization of this technical task the athlete has to pass as soon as possible to the rival certain distances from the longest to the shortest.

In a duel of a horting both in a rack, and in orchestra seats distinguish three gripping distances:

- a distance out of capture;

- a gripping distance;

- a klinchevy distance.

A distance out of capture. This distance to the rival is characterized by that, in it maneuvering and the choice of a convenient position without contact with the rival is carried out, and also there can be an exchange of blows and prospecting shock actions. At a distance out of capture the moment, convenient for attack, is selected, moving on a horta (the competitive platform), striking long blows and doing the various deceptive movements without takings of the opponent. The distance out of capture is a preliminary gripping distance for the choice of the moment and an entrance on capture. From a distance out of capture with application of blows or without them athletes pass into a gripping distance.

Gripping distance. The gripping distance is the main working gripping distance with which the throw begins or having brought down the rival in orchestra seats. It corresponds to an average or near shock distance and is characterized by opportunities to strike powerful blows and to take convenient captures, a wide choice of techniques. In a gripping distance athletes act resolutely and purposefully, having chosen the instrument of attack. Gripping situations at the same time can be both unilateral, and mutual, athletes can take each other in capture for wrists, forearms, shoulders, an ankle, a shin, a hip. A throw or having brought down the rival in orchestra seats it can directly be made from a gripping distance and if it was not succeeded to strike to the rival a crushing blow, having plunged it in nogdaun or a knockout, then a main goal - decisive technical operation will be performed only in a klinchevy distance. Gripping main distance is preparatory for transition to a klinchevy distance.

Klinchevy distance. In a klinchevy distance athletes are in close dense capture, mutual capture, can clasp the friend for the case in front, sideways or behind, a neck, to exchange blows in klinchevy capture. The Klinchevy gripping distance is characterized by approach of the rival closely, each other grasps, nestling a trunk one on another or twisting a leg with a leg. In a klinchevy gripping distance in a rack all main throws through a back, a hip, a shoulder, footboards, pickups, revolutions are carried out, and also it is allowed to strike blows with a hand, free from capture. In a klinchevy gripping distance of orchestra seats deduction, painful and suffocating reception, revolutions and exits from difficult situations is carried out.

Using transitions from one distance to another, movements and maneuverings in capture you will have a skill of application of force in the necessary rational direction. In fighting practice of a horting with use of gripping equipment there are two ways to win a victory over the rival when the first is reduced to direct opposition to force of a bigger force and physically stronger athlete wins, and the second way is defined by the direction of application of force in three-dimensional space, and in this case the way and the direction of force of capture which will allow to use strength of the rival against him is defined, your application of force provides at the same time motive control, and your maximum effort in the key final moment of painful or suffocating reception allows to win a victory.

Biomechanical bases of gripping equipment of a horting

For the biomechanical analysis of gripping actions of a hortingist it is necessary to consider morphological (anatomic), physiological and psychological characteristics.

the Skeleton and kinematic structure of a body of the person are by nature well adapted for implementation of gripping movements in a steady position of a body. These captures can be considered from the point of view of movement of gripping extremities in space and time, and also skorostno - power characteristics when performing further actions: vyvedeniye from balance, throws, sbiv, deduction, painful and suffocating receptions, all technical actions connected with application of captures of hands. These technical elements have high-speed and dynamic characteristics which are applied in the optimum amplitude and a trajectory of the movement.

the Top extremities by means of work of all body play the main role in capture implementation as on them the role of direct contact with the taken part of a body of the rival lays down. Participation of the top extremity of the athlete in biomechanics of capture happens on a three-articulate kinematic chain: fingers and a brush - a forearm - a shoulder. Simultaneous capture by two hands is carried out in the same kinematic chain, only with participation of muscles of a trunk: pectoral muscles and the broadest muscles of a back. Closing an extremity or the rival`s trunk in capture, from hands the movement passes to progress of a trunk in the necessary direction, using a support of legs. When performing a throw the main role of a driving element passes from hands to a trunk and concentration of effort in aboutlast of a coxofemoral joint. Rotary moment of a basin at a support on legs gives to a throw the powerful movement in the necessary direction.

If to consider a throw through a hip capture of a hand and the case from the point of view of biomechanics of performance, then after capture of necessary capture on the above-stated kinematic chain effort is transferred to a trunk and a basin, at a subcollar of a basin there is an acceleration of rotation of a body towards a throw, then using a three-dimensional basic chain of legs: feet, shins, hips, it is carried out having lined with a coxofemoral joint of a body of the rival. When performing a podbiv by gripping action removal from balance of the rival in the direction - through the held-up hip is carried out, and using all inertia of a body in the necessary direction the throw which to final a phase of the amplitude is followed by the capture executed prior to the beginning of a subcollar is carried out. When performing a throw through a hip to the right side rotation happens around the axis passing through the right foot and the right coxofemoral joint. At a podbiva links of a belt of the top extremities are fixed by a basin in capture, are not mobile, one half of a belt can make the movements irrespective of another. Playing all over the attacking athlete controls a trajectory of falling of the rival from initial to a final phase. Thus on the example of this throw, we considered the biomechanical principle of the gripping action directed to performance of a throw. Each gripping action in a duel has the task and can be considered, concerning a possibility of its performance. If capture is taken densely and reliably, then the chance to receive result when carrying out further equipment, a throw, deduction, painful or suffocating reception, is high therefore having included a kinematic chain: hands - a body - a support, it is possible to begin reception performance. If capture is not provided with necessary effort, a comfortable steady position, then the rival can easily parry your further broskovy attack.

Depending on option and the direction of gripping effort (the attacking capture, protective capture, preliminary capture, mutual capture) get into active gear these or those groups of muscles on which high-quality action depend speed, force. Therefore at creation of trainings it is very important to consider data of anatomy for development of the most correct program of training of the athlete. Much attention should be paid to development of muscles of a forearm, sgibately and razgibately top extremities: a two-headed and three-headed muscle, internal and external oblique muscles of a stomach, the broadest muscle of a back, big and small pectoral muscles, trapezoid, participating in rotary effort of the top part of a trunk around a vertical axis. The gripping actions which are carried out in a klinchevy dense distance have to be provided with a strong muscular corset of hands. Since first moment of gripping action - a contact of the taken part of a body of the rival and before final action - the finished reception by means of capture, force and speed as increase in each chain. The muscles are stronger, the stronger and quicker they can be reduced, but at the same time they have to be rather elastic to support gripping effort throughout a long period. The muscles of hands and backs accepting the main gripping loading have to have special endurance both for carrying out captures, and for striking blows therefore specifics of training in a horting have a very different methodical focus, exercises, the developing sgibatel of hands have to be replaced by shock exercises and extensions. The joints of the top extremities adapted for long-term power gripping loadings have to be flexible, performing any amplitude technical operations with the maximum effort, necessary for carrying out reception in a rack or orchestra seats.

At capture of capture in near fight, irrespective of the movement of the rival, you have to have the most steady position. This situation is provided with continuous movement of the center of gravity, holding it over a steady support of the lower extremities and, generally due to active actions of muscles of a trunk and a belt of the top extremities at very small rotary motions of a basin. But as soon as you decided to carry out technical action, all your kinematic energy of a body goes for work of a basin and its moving to the starting provision of a throw. The most difficult movements make parts of a body at protective actions when to a hortingist it is necessary not only to leave from blow of the opponent, but also to create a starting position for own active percussions or broskovy actions. When carrying out reception in capture it is always necessary to remember that first of all it is necessary to discompose the opponent by the shift of its center of gravity, then to include all the body in the movement. Such biomechanical justification of technology of captures in a rack allows to fulfill throws not only from standard captures, and also from provisions which you select individually in the course of repeated repetitions of basic equipment and which are ideally suited for your constitution of a body. At capture of reliable capture and the correct use of the principles of biomechanics and your physiological data in carrying out a throw, such throw gets the special force and speed, becomes powerful and almost irresistible for the rival of the weight, identical with you. You will be able easily to discompose the rival in capture, to operate and manipulate it in this situation a duel, to make painful impact on links of hands and legs, to switch its attention and to create to it new and new inconvenient situations, at the expense of own rigid biomechanical system, the prepared muscles, to achieve the maximum result, having made rational minimum effort in each situation of a duel. The main task of biomechanics in this case is in defining those conditions under which driving forces of muscles affect firm parts of a skeleton of the athlete and can turn a body into the working car of gripping action with the most useful effect. Gripping actions of the athlete comprise both forward, and rotary motions. Such movement when any line which is conditionally carried out in a body moves parallel to itself, that is the movement of the athlete in capture forward at attack by a back footboard is called forward. At a rotary motion all points of a body describe circles which centers lie on a rotation axis. The movement can be more forward, than rotary, or on the contrary. The forward and rotary motions made at the same time form the difficult movement. In some cases actions of the athlete include the movements in the vertical direction, for example blasting the rival capture of two legs. In gripping action, even the simplest, different groups of muscles are involved: one are reduced more vigorously and perform the main work, others are less active, but without their participation this movement will not turn out. For example, at extension and bending of a hand in an elbow joint work not only a two-headed and three-headed, but also humeral muscle. At a trunk inclination in the parties the main work is performed by an external oblique muscle of a stomach, but if it is a bias with a small bias aside forward, then also the direct muscle of a stomach is connected, and the trunk inclination can be combined with a small bias aside back, are in that case connected cross - awned and short interspinal muscles. Muscles, being reduced in different sequence and a combination, set separate parts (an extremity, a trunk) of a body in motion. At frequent repetition of the same gripping movements of a muscle are qualitatively improved, the movements of the top extremities going for capture become fast and exact. The athlete acting by rules of such difficult type of single combat as a horting has to imagine well an anatomic structure of a human body, function of separate muscles in order that it is correct to be guided in the choice of the protective and attacking captures. For example, for development of speed and force of capture by the right hand for a neck from above it is necessary to select such exercises which would develop, mainly, a biceps, the broadest muscle of a back, big chest and deltoid muscles. At active gripping actions it is necessary to consider the direction of effort and reference points of axes of rotation, and at passive capture - reliability and fortress of static provisions of fascinating extremities and reliability of a support, that is stability of all constraining kinematic design. The direction of gripping effort and movement of the taken part of a body of the rival depends on the choice of the attacking broskovy action. Depending on the direction of a throw (forward, back, aside, with lifting and a separation from a floor) these or those groups of muscles on which high-quality action the speed and force of a throw depends get into active gear. Knowing features, an arrangement and functions of muscles, it is easy to hortingist to define to what of them it is necessary to pay attention for their high-quality purposeful development what should be chosen means for working off of each throw separately. Therefore at creation of training process it is very important to consider anthropometrical, anatomic and physiological data for development of the most correct program of training of the athlete.

In gripping situations of orchestra seats for implementation of technical actions appears an additional support - a floor that significantly alters some captures, and also the direction of application of force when performing receptions. In the kinematic analysis of gripping equipment of orchestra seats it is possible to observe inclusion of all groups of muscles in implementation of the purpose as in orchestra seats the question of stability of a fighting rack is removed, and instead active fight for advantageous top position and the best capture is conducted. At parterny fight the possibility of a throw also disappears and, naturally there are no many technical elements of the transfer of the rival to orchestra seats, but the way to an ultimate goal is considerably reduced, that is existence of continuous dense capture in a klinchevy distance gives the chance to pass from one equipment of orchestra seats to another:

- from the holding capture on painful;

- from the holding capture on suffocating;

- from a submission hold on suffocating;

- from suffocating capture on painful.

All these productive technical actions demand a constant control capture of position of the rival. Having released capture in orchestra seats even of one hand, you considerably increase maneuverability of the rival. Work on capture as hands has to be followed by work of hips and a basin constantly. Even striking blows in orchestra seats, you have to use inertia of all body, including legs, and going for capture of an extremity of the rival a hand, you have to provide reliability of a support in a floor in advance at the expense of legs or the case as any painful reception is carried out with application of several points of support. Carrying out submission or suffocating hold, at first rest knees and feet of legs against a floor, feel stability of a position, and then using a support, put in the attacking action all the force and speed which the kinematic design of your body chosen by you in this situation is capable to give. At a submission hold, for example, force it increases until all body of the opponent is blocked, and at this moment the explosive effort is applied: in a certain place and under a certain corner. Such painful reception for certain will be productive. From the technical point of view, the most difficult movements in fight of orchestra seats which become on a capture advancing as in this case all biomechanical parameters are considered it is more than in other types of tactical actions. From the point of view of physical advantage in orchestra seats, the most difficult in the plan is counter capture as the success of gripping action depends on functional preparation of a forearm and a shoulder, and blows and takings of the opponent in this situation fall on the anticourse to you that bears double load of all parts of the body. The natural favor to ability to conduct a duel in orchestra seats, existence of dexterity and endurance practically turns a duel outcome. In gripping equipment the principle of the lever allowing to increase force of the movement for the account of an additional support and application of a rotary motion as the more rotation radius, the is easier to shift object is often used and the less energy is required to develop it around a rotation axis. In most cases force of active capture for movement of the taken part of a body of the rival is applied on an arch with application of the reversive movement of a basin which is transferred to the case and through hands on capture. Sometimes force at capture is used in two directions at once, for example:

- suffocating capture in orchestra seats for a neck behind and a case grasp legs with a deflection in a back;

- and having lined the elbow lever between legs with a basin of the attacked shoulder.

of Such moments of application of force at the same time in two directions can be a set, and at such anatomic structure of joints of the person, it is difficult to opponent to resist force applied at the same time more than in one direction. Therefore it is necessary to pay special attention to training of an exit from submission or suffocating hold, to application of countercaptures and transitions to an advantageous position of orchestra seats. Captures on the lever, a key or the lock are aimed at result and is carried out in a horting rigidly and powerfully therefore release from them demands considerable dexterity and knowledge of the principles of biomechanics of captures. Exits from such provisions are carried out due to the movement on an advancing, and counterreception should be carried out when action of the opponent only begins. There is also other option of an exit from captures and painful receptions, but he demands specific preparation - training of special mobility and flexibility of joints. Such flexibility can be reached only by performance of special exercises which purpose - to achieve elasticity of sheaves and to lower a threshold of painful sensitivity. The best way of an exit from capture, it when the rival loses capture and completely releases the taken part of your body. But at its dense capture, it is also possible to carry out the attacking actions, having intercepted an initiative at first only in the movement by a body, and then and recapture. These skills and understanding of the principles of biomechanics it is given by practice of release from captures and painful fixings, exercises which not only strengthens and stretches muscles and joints, doing them by more elastic, but also serves as a magnificent way of training in skills of near fight, to feeling of a gripping distance, the correct application of force, and also plays a role of psychological training as work in close contact with the opponent demands specific psychological preparation. Use in fight of captures and methods of fight has practical value in training of high-class athletes. The trained extremities for sure carrying out gripping actions allow to reduce your general traumatism at trainings, and the technology of preparation of gripping extremities can be recommended for development of force of fingers, wrists, increase in elasticity of sheaves and sinews and also as a specific form of pair warm-up on uchebno - training classes in a horting.

Skills of captures and methods of fight are a basis of improvement of system of near fight in the full contact mixed duels. Captures and methods of fight in near fight of a horting prevail for that simple reason that the equipment including only blows hands and legs is obviously inefficient against the rival who captured you and ready to carry out reception. The Horting demands from participants of fight of powerful and sure work as hips and extremities. As a method of training fight in conditions when both hands participate in captures is used. Improvement of gripping equipment is important for the subsequent effective fight, during such work the balance, carrying power and mobility necessary both for preservation of own stability, and for capsizing of the opponent on hort develops (the competitive platform). At any right moment of a duel in mutual capture standing or in orchestra seats one of opponents can strike blow. In this case, very good preparation is required to hold sobstvenny balance and not to lose control over the opponent, at the same time holding capture and striking blows to the vital points. Controlling the steady fighting and advantageous position at possession of the attacking capture, you prepare for carrying out the acquired throw in a rack, or painful, suffocating reception in orchestra seats, and using the principles of biomechanics and the direction of application of force, you considerably will increase the speed and force of the attacking action.

Ensuring rigidity of captures

As the major role in performance of captures is played by muscles of the top extremities, in a technique of preparation for gripping actions it is necessary to apply exercises which develop this group of muscles. Rigidity of captures directly depends at most muscles of hands. If capture undertakes only a brush, then the main loading is born by forearm muscles if capture is applied with use of a forearm, its pressing to a shoulder or the case, in this case the leading role in ensuring rigidity of capture is played a sgibatel of a hand, a big pectoral and broadest muscle of a back.

At capture by a brush the main loading lays down on fingers of a fascinating extremity, therefore, strengthening of fingers has to be carried out constantly in training, combining these exercises with training of a forearm. Anatomic on a forearm there are sgibatel of fingers therefore the forearm of a hand can be considered as the main segment bearing loading when performing gripping equipment. Force of muscles of a forearm is transferred to rigid capture. In training process there is a mass of exercise on strengthening of fingers and muscles of a forearm, for example:

- bending and extension of hands in an emphasis lying on fingers;

- standing on fingers in an emphasis lying;

- hung also pulling up on a crossbeam;

- exercises on a carpal expander;

- tightening by fingers of a brush of a tennis ball;

- bending and extension of a brush with burdening in an emphasis on a knee;

- educational tasks with the partner directed on fight for capture.

the Following necessary criterion of preparation of a forearm is his endurance. In sports practice endurance of separate group of muscles carries the name of local endurance. Local endurance of muscles of a forearm is necessary for implementation of long-term captures with a constant force. Local endurance of muscles of a forearm plays an important role when performing specific activity of hortingist. Increase of endurance of muscles of a forearm - one of the main tasks which the athlete has to put before himself, working on rigidity of captures. But the ekonomization of muscular efforts when performing captures is necessary for gripping equipment, productive and constant in the course of all duel, that is the maximum gripping effort is put to the taken part of the rival only at the moment, necessary for carrying out attack, and irrational use of endurance and a power resource of forearms can lead to excessive expense of forces and energy, loss in general of gripping fighting capacity of hands. Local endurance of the muscles providing capture depends on the size of the shown effort. An important factor in fight against local exhaustion is rational distribution of forces in the course of muscular activity. The maximum effort has to be shown only at the right time when the athlete makes technical action, in other situations, he has to be able to vary effort parameters. The exhaustion of local character comes very quickly if the athlete is long in one capture therefore it is recommended to change constantly captures or to pass to shock attack. Complexes of special exercises are intended for education of local endurance of muscles of a belt of the top extremities can be used by athletes of various qualification. Ways of performance of capture in many respects define distinctive features of a horting where capture undertakes only parts of a body: neck, trunk, extremities. A variety of captures in the technical section of a horting is very big, and when performing technical actions: throws, painful and suffocating receptions, deduction, an important role is played by capture. Having divided performance of a throw on phases: capture, a subcollar, having lined, dumping, it will become visible that capture will be the first link in this sequence. Captures are made by a brush and are more rare a forearm, the main loading lays down on forearm muscles. The brush represents the unique, created by the nature gripping tool allowing the person to make difficult and absolutely sensitive gripping actions.

Performing specific work with gripping effort about limit opportunities, the athlete is doomed to very fast exhaustion. Reducing parameters of efforts of capture it has an opportunity to prolong time of effective working capacity. Limit and near the athlete has to apply limit efforts only in situations, the attacking or protective character. For improvement of gripping work athletes of a horting include training fights where there is only a fight for capture in a rack, without carrying out throws and transfers to orchestra seats in a preparation technique. A task of athletes, being protected from carrying out takings of the opponent, to make the effective reliable captures. Thus skill of capture of the correct capture is acquired and fight options for it are fulfilled. All these exercises promote improvement of gripping equipment, and also strengthen extremities for performance of rigid capture.

Application of countercaptures and recaptures

Process of capture of capture is carried out by very fast and purposeful movement of hands which has to be continuous and high-speed. If the movement of a hand for capture is not rather fast, the rival will instantly react and will clean the part of a body attacked by capture. If this movement is uncertain, then even at capture implementation the rival will be able easily to escape from it. The main, fast and most reliable way of reaction to taking of the rival - countercapture.

Kontrzakhvat. Countercapture reciprocal capture on taking of the rival at which the steady position of a fighting rack remains is considered and short-term neutralization of the broskovy attack planned by the rival is carried out. At gripping attack of the rival by your hand of the same name (a hand wrist), capture of his taken hand or capture of other free hand can be countercapture. The countercapture purpose - to create unlike gripping situation at gripping attack of the rival. From the provision of countercapture the counterthrow, aside, opposite to attempt of the rival to carry out a throw in the attacking capture can be carried out. Countercapture or reciprocal capture of a neck from above you can react to pass of the rival to legs with capture of a leg for a hip. At the rival`s subcollar through a back with capture of a hand on a shoulder you can react to a throw with countercapture of the case behind and a counterthrow through a leg back. From correctly taken countercapture it is always possible to attack, having turned the same countercapture into the attacking main capture. If the rival carries out attack uncertainly or made a technical mistake having developed to you by a back at the time of capture loss, you can carry out the counterattacking actions as the main counterattack at once, in this case your countercapture will play a role of the main attacking capture with which sure broskovy action begins. At a submission hold of the rival by your hand in orchestra seats as countercapture will serve capture of the wrist which resists to straightening your hand attacked by painful reception. In a situation of a frequent exchange of captures in fight of orchestra seats athletes often apply and take countercaptures as opposed to captures on painful or suffocating reception.

Perezakhvat. Gripping technical action which at change of position of hands at capture, allows to change the direction of application of force of the previous gripping action is considered recapture. That is, if you prepared attack by a throw - a forward footboard to the right, but previously held the rival by both forearms capture of hands, you need to expedite recapture by the right hand for a neck of the rival and with the subsequent subcollar of a basin and exposure of a leg under both legs of the rival to carry out a forward footboard to the right.

If to you was succeeded to take a hand of the rival in orchestra seats between legs and two forearms in the lock to attack his hand painful reception by the lever of an elbow joint, then having made the top forearm of the lock recapture for a wrist of the attacked rival`s hand, you have much more lever and an opportunity to extend his hand on painful reception. athletes can do

During a horting duel in each provision of capture of one hand on several recaptures, will not take the necessary for attack main attacking capture yet.

generally fight for capture in a duel is carried out by means of:

- captures of the attacking capture;

- performance of the recapture;

- neutralizations of the attacking action of the rival countercapture.

“ Encyclopedia of a horting“

Eduard Eremenko

© 2010.