Russian cookery. How it was?
the Russian cookery developed under the influence of the surrounding nature and climate which differed from European in the long, cold winter, short, sometimes in the hot summer. The woody district, few open spaces imposed the feature on agriculture. The food allowance was very poor, especially in the lower class. Ate what was.
Bar ate meat of pets, products of hunting, fishing, gifts of the wood were used. The common people were killed by entrails from a lordly table, silent fishing. Thievishly postrelivat a lordly game, reserved a ramson, mushrooms, berries, wetted and dried fruit.
The well-known Russian technology of a mocheniye based on use of solodkovy sugar which sweetened products, but did not allow them to sour is almost lost now. Wetted apples, plums, water-melons, cowberry and many other things that considerably enriched a table in long severe winters.
Vegetables were cultivated that where could ripen. Sickly ogorodik, low-yield cultures; an orach, peas, beans, cabbage, cucumbers, horse-radish was widely grown up, it was used not only as spice, but also as medicine; root crops, turnip, a radish and a swede were rescue, they were dug in in deep holes, warmed by stacks, all the same froze through, but were used in food. Root crops were eaten crude, soared, in Russian cabbage soup - the main soup of that time, up to the XX century.
Potatoes were not widespread in Russia to the first quarter of the XX century. Poppy was everywhere grown up. Pies and poppy pies were absolutely ordinary dish, poppy heads - a favourite delicacy of children.
Undeveloped peasants cultivated hemp - not for receiving drug, and for production of ropes, a canvas and hempy oil. It went to food and for gas station of icon lamps.
To the middle of the XIX century, before cancellation of a serfdom, wheat flour was almost not used, there was no wheat. The spring-sown field did not grow ripe, and its productivity was very low. Winter grades of wheat did not maintain long severe winters. A small amount of wheat flour arrived from Ukraine and was used generally for production of confectionery.
The polba was radical Russian culture for production of white flour, it is a little fruitful and in public catering is not noticeable.
Oats and rye were the main grain crops. Oats - the most irreplaceable universal culture, it was used not only for preparation of porridges, soups, flat cakes, kissels which were the main food for people, but the main thing is the main forage for horses.
Rye - the main grain culture of Russia, rye flour was applied to baking of bread - a basic food product up to the XX century, to pies, pies, coulibiacs, gingerbreads, etc. In the fall green porridge from rye dairy - wax ripeness enjoyed special popularity. Rye dough, unlike wheat, can be made only on yeast, there was enough hop in the Russian woods, one of the best flour products - the Russian rye yeast dough so appeared.
The buckwheat - specific grain culture was still cultivated, she allowed to create not only buckwheat cereal, but also the Russian pancakes well-known for the whole world.
The animal husbandry developed poorly, cattle and sheep were provided with green sterns, hay from forest grounds and did not demand grain additives. Hens in Russia were rather an exception, than the rule, there was no grain, was got rather pine-forest game.
Feature of Russia was the fact that in it the face of calfs and the use was forbidden in write veal for what up to the XVII century the death penalty relied. The use in food of a large number of beef led to emergence of purely Russian lordly illness - gouts.
Till the 15th century big distribution had pine-forest beekeeping, Russia was the only exporter of honey to Europe. There was a lot of honey that it was used for production of alcoholic beverages, various med, medok, honey home brews. But wars and excessive export destroyed honey grounds and brought them into full decline.
A large number of water resources provided the country with fish. Fish was salted and frozen because it was available at all seasons of the year. A favourite fish dish - steam fish with horse-radish.
Soups are widespread in Russia - it is connected with winter cold weather. Except the world famous Russian cabbage soup having tens of versions and options fish soup, a rassolnik, vegetable soup and some other belongs to specifically Russian soups.
Fish soup differs from fish soups both in the production technology, and structure. To fish soup in principle there is only fresh-caught fish, still live (for example, to sterlet fish soup). Difference of fish soup is preparation only from one grade of fish - a sterlet, a perch, a sturgeon, a pike perch, a whitefish therefore fish soup is called according to the name of fish: sterlet fish soup, sturgeon fish soup, etc. of
goes To fish soup only this way the called sweet fish (white). Black grades are excluded: the bream, a gudgeon, a bleak, small fry, a burbot, a pike from which cook fish soups. In the real fish soup do not put vegetables, except onions (an integral head).
One more feature of cookery in Russia - lack of such technological process as frying. In Russia there were no fried national dishes, it is explained not by some special insight of the population, but elementary lack of the fats suitable for frying.
The olive oil coming to Russia as “Provencal“ was very expensive, own hempy and linen, at best, went for a bread sdabrivaniye, it did not suit for frying. Sunflower oil appeared only at the beginning of the XX century.
Cooking, roasting, suppression, pastries, a mocheniye and a fermentation were the main processing culinary methods in Russia.
I will provide names of the most widespread dishes : Russian cabbage soup, the fish soup, turnip soared a side mutton with buckwheat cereal, roast (the beef meat baked in the furnace), razvarny beef, roast goose, cock combs, sturgeon steam, herring the hall, the mushrooms baked, mushrooms salty, eggs baked, a radish, cutlets with peas, pancakes, pies, peas pies; porridges - black (rye), green of immature rye, buckwheat, polbyany, wheat, yachnevy, pearl-barley, oat, millet, rice (Sorochynsk), Smolensk, Guryev, semolina, pea, lentil etc.
Russia always was a little drinking, to be exact - not drinking country. The matter is that there were no raw materials for production of alcohol. Home brew was allowed to be done only collectively, a community for big religious holidays, rye and barley were worth its weight in gold.
Even when industrial production of vodka began, it was not sold in a small container but only buckets. Fortress did not exceed 20 - 25 degrees not to allow everyday individual alcoholism. Only at the end of the XIX century vodka began to be spilled in 600 - gram bottles, modestly calling table wine, however, already 40-degree. Imported wine was very expensive.
Familiarizing with world culture began in Russia very specifically, with landslide alcoholism when the tsar Peter I and his confidants began to introduce hard alcoholic beverages in mass use. Who did not maintain such alcoholic impact and quickly became an inveterate drunkard, who did not agree to drink, was even quicker expelled. It allowed to remain at top of the power to citizens, especially steady against alcohol. Alcoholism was the most reliable check of loyalty.
The Russian culinary technologies, forcedly, in many respects outstripped the well-known French. The Russian cookery is based on preparation of original variety of dishes from limited number of products, seldom repeats. French cuisine from small number of basic dishes, manipulating very small amount of basic sauces, creates visibility of inexhaustibility of the imagination. The outer side put, but not internal essence - here in what a difference of these two approaches.
The French cooks working in Russia at the end of XVIII the beginning of the XIX centuries, acquired a lot of things and introduced at themselves, often giving primordially Russian dishes for the innovations. So fine Russian jelly, fragrant, with unique taste, they turned in ordinary, absolutely faceless jelly.
The Russian culinary culture owing to specifics of climatic conditions, lack of fats, existence in the basic of gray and black cereals, had full-fledged bread and the most valuable porridges, was one of the healthiest. It exerted a great influence on Europe.