Who constructed Archangel Michael Church in the village of Hotilovo? Krestyansko - the merchant version
Who at least once went from Moscow on St. Petersburg on the route M10 “Russia“, could not but pay attention to hotilovsky church. She is from far away visible. Vyshny Volochyok with its channels remained somewhere behind for a long time. To Valdai still to saw and saw. Behind a window - the landscape which already became habitual: fields, the rare bush which are becoming blue at an edge of the horizon of the wood, replacing each other and similar as brothers, small settlements with different names. As suddenly …
Somewhere it is far - far ahead there is a light speck drawing attention, in process of approach slowly transformed to a high three-level belltower and a facade of the temple over which main building towers at once, glancing towards the road empty eye-sockets of arch window openings, a drum octahedron without dome.
There is no roof neither on a belfry, nor on a refectory. But it, as well as the plaster which bared equal pryamougolnichka of a bricklaying in places fell off remains somewhere there, outside attention. And the projections of east (altar) and southern walls of the temple playing for the main line of a facade, buildings, symmetric in relation to the central axis, and going to all its height are evident. The last not only a parabottom is decorated with the portico attached to it, but also on growth - above the altar fellow that is visually very well visible at the expense of the windows built in two ranks.
Considering that from another, not looked through from the route, North side of the temple just the same high and acting from the general facade of a construction projection, becomes clear that perpendicular the central axis of the building the diameter of two projections forms the so-called cross aisle doing the temple in the plan to crosswise. But in hotilovsky church this cross, transeptny axis is almost atrophied and only shades much more pronounced and obviously prevailing tsentrichnost and solidity of the temple as uniform complete construction. And it - in spite of the fact that its separate parts are executed in different architectural styles.
Dual pilasters on a drum, arch, dugoobrazno curved windows of the second rizalitny row with the frame platbands supplied with “ears“ … They are the elements of late baroque which are well looked through on the main building of the temple. While the refectory more corresponds to late classicism. And a belltower and a portico of the southern projection - to style an empire style.
However, it is heavy to consider separate elements of a decor of hotilovsky church when literally in several tens seconds you slip it and you go further, to Valdai. If this speed that here to hide, on a two-three of tens of kilometers above allowed by traffic regulations within the settlement. And what you will make? The route - that … Moscow - St. Petersburg. Freights on it goes … And each of them has to be delivered to the place of the appointment as soon as possible.
So some trifles, naturally, remain outside attention. But here general impression … It does not go back, together with removed, but still well visible to a rearview mirror, the church building. Remains in the car and slowly enters, joins you, creating feeling of integrity, solidity, beauty and force. If more precisely, then even not forces. Relics. Imperial, imperial power.
And somehow this does not coordinate architectural settlements with the small settlement located on serious removal not only from Moscow or St. Petersburg but also from two next regional centers - Tver and Novgorod. Who when constructed this church? And why in Hotilov?
Perhaps local peasants? Generally, for the Russian North quite typical phenomenon when residents of several villages grouped at any churchyard were dumped by the whole world, employed team of professional carpenters who built the cult construction ordered by it. So, for example, the well-known churches of Kizhi Pogost were constructed. Or, less known, in the village of Lyadina, present Kargopolsky district of the Arkhangelsk region. And many, many others.
But … So exclusively wooden churches were under construction. And in Hotilovo it - stone.
And not so richly in veins here the people that even if the whole world to chip in together, it would be possible to construct such architectural miracle.
The matter is that there are several versions of an origin of the present name of the village. On the first, it in the XIV-XV centuries was a part of the Derevsky pyatina of Mister of Veliky Novgorod and was an ancestral lands of the Novgorod posadnik of Hotila. Perhaps of course, it and so, but to us other version according to which the great sovereign Moscow Ivan III enjoined to put in 1560 on the post highway Moscow - Novgorod special stations for rest of passengers and substitution of tired horses - so-called holes is more interesting.
For hunters who showed readiness to serve as coachmen in close proximity to the place of their permanent job - roads - were cut “yamsky“ lands. From here and the name of the village, famous since the 16th century, - Hotilovsky of Holes. So not poor plots of fields that lay to the left of the road on the right, namely he, a post path, fed hotilovsky peasants.
In the 18th century, with the basis of St. Petersburg, the movement between Moscow and the new capital of the empire became considerable more brisk, and in the village there were trade benches, taverns, inns and even the Travelling palace for especially noble persons stopping in Hotilov on a lodging for the night. But it did not affect welfare of local coachmen at all.
Here is how in the head of “Hotilovo“ well-known “Travel from St. Petersburg to Moscow“ A. N. Radishchev describes life of local population of that time: “Walls, ceilings, benches, - everything is covered with a black raid of soot. The furnace without pipe and a smoke fills every morning a log hut... In a log hut hot, there is a heavy smell, the great number of flies buzzes. In a cradle, in dirty rags the baby shouts … Nearby the torn-off hungry children. Eternal grief and poverty“.
“Grief and poverty“. Eternal. No, not in power was to hotilovsky peasants to construct stone church, reached up to now amazing on the beauty.
Then, maybe, merchants? As - Hotilovo once was a part of Mister of Veliky Novgorod in any way. And many Novgorod churches are constructed on donations of specific merchants or merchant dynasties.
Again does not grow together. History of names of hotilovsky merchants did not keep to us. Coachmen, station inspectors, even innkeepers were here, and here representatives of the trade capital … No, maybe, of course, and they were in Hotilov, but, most likely, not so solid level to be noted by something serious. Like stone church for the sake of Mikhail Arkhangel.
But if not peasants … And not merchants … Who then constructed Hotilovsky church? Who?! And here the answer to this question is so interesting that it deserves the separate story …