Why to us economic thinking?
the good expert always quickly and quickly can easily find breakage in your TV, the car or the cell phone because knows how he they works being in full serviceability. Many people consider economic problems and tasks difficult because have no clear idea of normally functioning economy which cornerstone one basic principle - realization of competitive advantages and receiving profit is. And such state of affairs is quite natural if we long time believed something axiomatic, then even to understand what, as a matter of fact, we so got used to, it becomes very difficult.
It belongs and to understanding of introduction in practice of our behavior of market mechanisms - it is impossible to consider that the effective mechanism of economic development will arise on itself. History of development of the economic theory shows that any economic theories and schools appeared only after economic crises or any shocks in world economy - after analysis and the analysis of last cataclysms in economy. Not bad therefore would be to begin studying of the economic theory with trying to be surprised to that dexterity with what we daily take part in public cooperation.
We will ask ourselves one simple question how members of any society induce each other to carry out that set of the interconnected actions as a result of which the material and non-material benefits, necessary for consumption, are made?
The mechanism inducing to positive cooperation of the necessary look has to exist even in the company of Saints if only they do not want to conduct life “lonely, poor, gloomy, animal, short-term“ (Hobbes Thomas “The leviathan, or Matter, a form and the power of the state church and civil“. M, 1936, p. 115). And the Saint before they are able effectively to help other people, it is necessary to define somehow: that, where and when it is necessary to make.
What we, as a matter of fact, understand as “an economic mentality“? First of all, what is meant by the term: it is rather an approach, than a set of already ready conclusions. John Maynard Keynes successfully formulated this situation: “The economic theory is not a set of already ready recommendations applicable directly in economic policy. It is rather a method, than the doctrine, the intelligent tool, equipment of thinking, helping the one who owns it, to come to the correct conclusions“ (D. M. Keynes “The general theory of employment, percent and money“ M, “Science“, 1987“).
But what it “equipment of thinking“? In the most general terms is a certain prerequisite about by what the person is guided in the behavior. Behind surprisingly rare exceptions economic theories are under construction, being guided by quite certain prerequisite that individuals take those actions which, in their opinion, will bring them the greatest pure benefit, that is advantage minus the various expenses or losses connected with these actions.
It is supposed that everyone arrives according to this rule: the miser and the spendthrift, the Saint and the sinner, the buyer and the seller, the politician and the head of firm, the person careful, relying on predesigns, and the desperate improvisator. But if all so different people, then in what way, proceeding from only one prerequisite about aspiration of everyone to satisfy the interests, the economic theory manages to explain something or to predict in their behavior?
Unless something follows from this prerequisite besides that people always act as want in what their interests consisted? Actually people at all not such different as could seem from the comparisons made above. All of us constantly manage to predict correctly acts absolutely not of familiar people - without it normal life in society is simply impossible. Besides, in any society which is widely using money, almost each person prefers to have them more because money expands possibilities of achievement of own interests in what they consisted. The last circumstance strongly helps to predict human behavior. It also is very useful and when it is required to affect behavior of other people.
Here we come back to a question of public cooperation and characteristic of an economic mentality again. The economic theory claims that, working in own interests, people create possibilities of the choice for others and that public coordination is process of continuous mutual adaptation to the changes in true benefit resulting from their interaction. It, of course, very abstract reasoning. When the proportion between the expected benefit and the expected costs of any action increases - people make it more often if decreases - more rare. The fact that honor everyone prefers bigger quantity of money smaller, extremely facilitates all process. If you want, money is similar to the lubricant extremely important for the mechanism of public cooperation. Moderate changes of monetary expenses and monetary benefits in some separate cases can induce a large number of people to change the behavior in such a way that it will be better coordinated with the actions of other people which are carried out at the same time.
The main mechanism of cooperation between members of society allowing them to provide satisfaction of the requirements also consists in it, using available to this means and using the most different competitive advantages invested with various mechanisms of action and use for their effective realization. The one who tries to argue on difficult economic interrelations without theory tries to obtain, as a rule, only that he argues on them with use of very bad theory.
Told does not excuse at all those economists who like to flash sometimes before audience, proving difficult theorems or practising in pure logic instead of addressing questions, really interesting to their listeners. Even training in economic science, we often behave as if all students would seek for achievement of doctor`s degree on this specialty, and our task consists in beginning their preparation for delivery of doctor`s examinations. The main goal of this article consists in that we began to think as economists, and once having begun, we any more will never stop. The economic thinking is similar to a good habit or passion, a hobby or tradition. Having Really acquired once some ways of economic reasonings, we then will find a possibility of their use everywhere.
Kartashev A. A. - the associate professor “Economy and business“, the head of the Center innovatively - technological business East - the Kazakhstan Regional University, Ust - Kamenogorsk, Kazakhstan.