Rus Articles Journal

Ivan the Terrible. Oprichnina was doomed?

Continuing conversation on oprichnina, we will try to plunge at that time.

To understand what the tsar Ivan Vasilyevich tried to obtain and what forces showed him resistance, it is necessary to look how the state in the second half of the XVI century was arranged.

The control system of the Russian Kingdom represented soslovno - the representative monarchy where the autocrat, even such abrupt as the father of Grozny Vasily Ivanovich and Ivan Vasilyevich, representative bodies, and the Seigniorial Duma first of all strong limited.

The grand duke (or the tsar) was entangled by fetters of tradition of obligatory participation of boyars in the solution of one and all state questions. According to them, it was difficult to execute and even to banish “enemy“, in particular the member Boyarskaya of the Duma, boyars under the chairmanship of the tsar had to judge the boyar only (practice quite European, in the same way had the right to judge the lord in England only lords, bessudno the king of England had no right to execute the duke or the count). Besides, the metropolitan had the unwritten right “to pechalovatsya for disgraced“, and the head of Church never neglected this right.

Thus, to establishment of oprichnina the sharp going deep conflict of the tsar Ivan with the Seigniorial Duma and discontent with its policy of “fight against sedition“ preceded, and it is not desire of many from “reign“ to run away the abroad far away from Ivanov of executions.

Ivan Vasilyevich was an original builder of the autocratic state, he threw down a challenge to Old times, the life orders in the state existing to it. He wished to be exempted from the fetters limiting its power to execute and pardon only on the understanding and volition. Here one of the main reasons of internal revolution in management - emergence of oprichnina.

But all began with Ivan Vasilyevich`s renunciation. He refused a throne, the limited power in favor of sons Ivan and Fyodor, and at this key moment of his life and reign all hung by a thread! But in that war of nerves the first Russian tsar won a clear victory, in the well-known message to Moscow he accused boyars and all mighty of this world of change and indulgence to change and as if asked to Moscow Luda for the help.

Reception worked - the Seigniorial Duma in the face of crowd of the angered Muscovites capitulated, and Ivan of Vasilyevich was hit absolutely not limited power in the hands. Having arrived to Moscow he ordered to execute the boyar of the subjugator of Kazan prince A. B. Gorbaty and several more boyars. And it was only the beginning. Ivan Vasilyevich was very suspicious, did not suffer the slightest objection or resistance, only now he had no need to constrain the mad, inherited from Glinsky temper.

So, Ivan Vasilyevich achieved the - he stopped hated fetters which limited his power punishing and pardoning from himself. He it cannot take and dismiss just like that the Seigniorial Duma - “a nest of traitors“. He has nothing to replace it. Then it divides the state into his personal oprichnik destiny (so called an allotment of the widow of the died prince) and a zemshchina - the rest of the state which copes as before.

Ivan Vasilyevich is the successor of business of the of the grandfather and the father, but by other methods, he just makes use of the experience which is saved up by them (once Ivan III ordered to move “the Novgorod traitors“ on new places (to ispomeshchat) deep into the states, and to transfer their manors to alien Moscow sluzhily people, the first landowners).

So, at Vasily Ivanovich in Smolensk the deputy prince V. V. Shuysky, having found change of the Smolensk boyars who got used to the Lithuanian orders of a shlyakhetsky liberty also removed them from habitual patrimonial nests and moved them to other counties where those received estates (the main thing - far away from the Lithuanian border).

However, to Ivan Vasilyevich nobody divided the state into two parts, here Grozny showed a full initiative. Those counties which he decided to take away in the oprichnik destiny began to exempt from traitors, friends of traitors and servants of traitors, moving them where far away, sometimes for convenience on a next world at once. To their former ancestral lands there arrived new noblemen, members of Monarchic “chosen one thousand“.

The father and the grandfather of Grozny ennobled “reign“, descendants of grand dukes Vladimir Monomakh and Alexander Nevsky, put them for the first roles in the state. Having found out that boyars illegally limited its imperial, God this autocratic power, and fighting against “change“ (imaginary or valid, other question), Ivan Vasilyevich appears before difficulty with whom to replace them. Ranks of guardsmen began to be joined, first of all, by representatives of the old Moscow families, the proved centuries of a faithful service the loyalty. Therefore in the first lists of the oprichnik yard - a surname of Pleshcheev - Basmanov, a starinneyshy Moscow surname.

Soon after establishment of oprichnina to Kazan which quite recently was the capital of the independent hostile khanate about 80 families were banished “reign“ - notable princes Yaroslavl, Rostov, Starodubsky. The historian Ruslan Skrynnikov considers this episode important for understanding of essence of oprichnina.

In a year the tsar issued the decree on a free pardon banished to Kazan, positions at court and in army were returned to them, began to return them also the confiscated ancestral lands. Why Grozny the tsar capitulated? Outside there was only the 16th century, and the young autocracy has nobody was to lean - the army represented a noble militia, part from groups of notable boyars and “reign“), absolutely there were no retaliatory bodies. That is why Ivan Vasilyevich`s course infringing radical interests of the nobility ruling in the state was doomed to defeat.

The Kazan history ended with an episode in European, to be exact the English spirit - there was a war with Poland for Baltic, the tsar Ivan made risky attempt of a gain of this important territory. Resources which it had were insufficient.

To collect the required huge sum of money, he goes on an extraordinary step - convokes a territorial cathedral. (Fight history in England of parliament and kings is penetrated by a question of the extraordinary taxation. When the king of England was deprived of the right for collecting any taxes without sanction of parliament, process of transformation of the monarch of Britain into the decorative figure deprived of any powers of authority was started.)

Of course, money for war was received, but then to the Kremlin the representative delegation from boyars and noblemen which very persistently asked to cancel the oprichnina which already became hated was.

Ivan Vasilyevich was discouraged, he gave rise idea to leave forever a multirebellious hail Moscow and to make the new capital of Vologda. And when there was a question of its renunciation of the power again, the plan was born to run with a family to England.

Be continued.