Ivan the Terrible. Why oprichnina was founded?
In the previous part were talked of youth of the tsar Ivan the Terrible. Often the name of Ivan the Terrible indissolubly contacts oprichnina, and we will address it.
It is known that to the beginning of the main of actions of its reign put departure to the Aleksandrovsky settlement in January, 1565 and threat of renunciation of a throne. What events preceded establishment of oprichnina and what reasons of the change which happened in the state were?
The historian Ruslan Skrynnikov writes that in January, 1562 “The code about an ancestral lands“ was accepted, in is mute “reign“ and boyars were strongly limited, having strong coordinated their sovereign rights to obligatory public service and fidelity of a dynasty! “Code“ became one of the reasons of sharp discontent with the political policy conducted by the tsar from a military support of the state - land owners.
Ivan Vasilyevich, already by nature very suspicious person, is more and more convinced of the disloyalty which is (actually exaggerated) both quite real discontent of many aristocrats and their desire to pass to service to the Polish king. At this time continuous fight occurs and amplifies - Ivan Vasilyevich wishes to repress the next enemy (imaginary or real “traitor“, it is not important), but powerful resistance in the Seigniorial Duma is shown him. Disgraced relatives and even enemies are actively protected and stand up for them. Using the ancient privilege “to pechalovatsya for disgraced“, at the top of the voice intercedes for repressed the metropolitan Makari.
“The car of repressions“ of Grozny continually glitches - under pressure it softens punishments, instead of execution is limited to the reference. At the same time the irritation policy of the tsar in ruling class increases and reaches a dangerous threshold: all land owners are professional soldiers, enough rich possess groups of the armed servants and “fighting lackeys“. And the autocracy is too young and did not take deep root. Die Ivan Vasilyevich - and all his state course will ruin!
In 1563 Ivan Vasilyevich receives the anonymous denunciation of his closest blood relative which struck him up to the soul depth - the prince Vladimir Andreevich Staritsky (who his lackey wrote, revenging mister for the fact that mister put him in prison). Vladimir Staritsky was the same grandson on the direct man`s line of the first Sovereign vseya Russia Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan the Third), as well as Ivan the Terrible.
The denunciation contained the instruction on intentions of traitors to deprive of it, Grozny, life and, having discharged his heir-at-laws - young sons Ivan and Fyodor, to crown Vladimir Andreevich. In Ivan Vasilyevich`s mind the episode, dangerous to his family, in 1553 when the tsar was dying right there emerges, and several influential boyars opposed to the oath to the juvenile son of the dying tsar - the tsarevitch Dmitry Ivanovich - and hoped on Vladimir Andreevich`s kingdom. Notable princes - Shchenyatev, Kurakina and Golitsyn, Obolensky and Rostov participated in new “plot“.
But intentions of Grozny against his cousin were stopped - Makari stood up, the Seigniorial thought interfered, and Ivan Vasilyevich was limited to an imprisonment to the monastery of “the main conspirator“ - Vladimir Andreevich`s mothers, the princess Efrosinii Staritskoy.
It became obvious to Ivan Vasilyevich that by usual methods to him not to cope with difficulty: “The boyars especially close to a family of the prince Vladimir Andreevich Staritsky spin changes and train him, the tsar vseya for Russia, murder, and the Seigniorial Duma on a habit interferes with fair punishment of traitors and kramolnik and it, the tsar and the grand duke a samoderzhavstvo are constrained and in every possible way it is contradicted and openly argue with it“.
Zakharyina, relatives of recently died and hotly favourite queen Anastasia Romanovna, whisper to Ivan Vasilyevich that it is impossible to suffer more, it is necessary to protect his samoderzhavstvo and, while the getting is good, to punish traitors.
Here the risk plan to threaten boyars to renounce a throne also came to Ivan Vasilyevich`s head and, having set on them the Moscow common people, to break their resistance and to achieve removal of all restrictions of its imperial power.