Ioann Grozny or Ivan Veliky? Offenses of the young autocrat of
B 1538 the ruler of the state Elena Vasilyevna dies.
Her death was not sudden, she before it long was sick, many decades later there will be a hypothesis that the ruler was poisoned, but historians R. G. Skrynnikov and V. B. Kobrin believe that it is absolutely doubtful. Elena Vasilyevna`s son is Ivan the Terrible with extraordinary tenderness treating memory of the mother - in the notes not to time does not mention presumable poisoning.
Already today in the Moscow Kremlin expertize of the remained hair of the ruler Elena Glinskaya was carried out, and it was established that she all - was poisoned, but to claim that it for 100% the proved historic fact, so far early.
Further the period which received the name of “seigniorial board“ follows. Ivan Vasilyevich at mature age created a legend about “a terrible seigniorial preponderance and it, the autocrat, humiliation“. Ivan the Terrible was a talented polemist and the bright publicist.
So Ivan Vasilyevich writes: “Fed us with the brother Yury of a yak foreign or a yak ubozhayshy chad“ so they suffered “in an attire and in an alkaniye“. External deprivations allegedly were followed by moral offenses. Grozny indignantly remembered how Shuyskiye behaved: “To us bo in childhood youth igrayushche, and the prince I. V. Shuysky sits on a bench, an elbow having leaned about I will lay our father and a leg having put, to us without admiring“.
Historian R. G. Skrynnikov treats this fragment with big doubt, most likely, “Shuysky offenses“ are sung by relatives of the first wife of Grozny of Anastasia Romanovna - Zakharyinymi which only of boyars Moscow sat as equals in the Duma from “knyazhata“, and in with Shuyskimi were “at daggers points“.
Trustees, princes Vasily Vasilyevich and Ivan Vasilyevichi Shuyskiye were appointed by the last command of Vasily Ivanovich, the father of Grozny not only as “the husband eminent“, but also for those special merits which they rendered the long service to the state.
The prince Vasily Vasilyevich Nemoy - Shuysky is a deputy Novgorod in 1500-06 and again - in 1510-14. Became the first deputy of Smolensk 1514-17. In 1514 Vasily Shuysky exposed plot of the Smolensk boyars and the bishop intending to go over on side of Lithuania. Such activity won to Vasily Shuysky a favor of the grand duke Vasily Ivanovich. That is why, dying, the grand duke Vasily Ivanovich to it charged to care for the spouse, for the juvenile son and for all Moscow state. To V. V. Shuysky who for briefness was nicknamed Mute at that moment 55 years were already executed. In five years after Elena Glinskaya`s death he overthrew the prince Ivan Ovchinu - Obolensky, became for several months the actual governor of the State with a title of “The Moscow deputy“ and at the age of 60 years died.
The younger brother Nemogo - Shuysky - the prince Ivan Vasilyevich - was also the famous commander, the first voivode of the advanced regiment in army of the brother, Vasily Nemy in a campaign to Polotsk in 1519. Deputy Smolensk 1520-1523. The first voivode of the Big regiment in army reigning in the Kazan campaign of 1523. Deputy Dwin 1534-1535. Within four years after death of the elder brother it as the deputy Moscow with variable success battled for the Supreme power against the prince Ivan Belsky against whom he won, in 1542 Ivan Shuysky died.
Shuysky` rival prince Ivan Fyodorovich Belsky was from the Lithuanian natives and Gedimin`s descendant, the grand duke Lithuanian. In 1524 he headed a campaign of huge Russian army on the Kazan khanate. In 1530 the campaign against Kazan was undertaken again, and the prince Belsky ordered pedestrian army, and M. L. Glinsky (the grandfather of Grozny on mother) - a cavalry. In 1533 Belsky again chief voivode, the member of the Supreme Council. It is at a bed of the dying Vasily III. In 1538-42 furiously struggles with Shuyskimi`s brothers for superiority in the Duma and loses to them, it is banished on Beloozero where it is secretly killed.
But, we will never note, deadly enemies of Shuyskiye and the prince Belsky in whose veins not less blue flew, than at young Ivan Vasilyevich, blood, and could not think to kill the young autocrat and to put on Monomakh`s cap. They three at a bed of the dying Vasily the Third swore to protect his widow and the son and to preserve the Russian State.
Historian S. F. Platonov writes that the deadly race for power trustees showed to young Ivan Vasilyevich as it is necessary to behave: “They flattered its bad instincts, praised cruelty of its entertainments, saying that it will leave the brave and courageous tsar, - and the boy left the spoiled and dismissed young man exciting against himself grumble of the population“. However beneficial influence on the growing-up autocrat was exerted by the metropolitan Makari, one of the most eminent persons of the Russian Church of that era.
Thus, to his lawful trustees - princes of brothers Shuysky and the prince Belsky it is necessary to treat the complaints about oppressions which were contained in Ivan Vasilyevich`s notes crucially.
Notes of Grozny are written to them at mature age and contain ideological justification of its tough policy on strengthening of the autocratic power.