Rus Articles Journal

Ioann Grozny or Ivan Veliky? The three-year-old sovereign of

In the previous part conversation went about boyars and “knyazhata“. Now we will pass at Ivan the Terrible`s childhood.

According to a legend, in all kingdom in an hour of the birth of the baby as if the terrible thunder-storm burst. The thunder burst among the clear sky and shook the earth to the basis. The Kazan hansha, having learned about the tsar`s birth, declared to the Moscow messengers: “The tsar was born at you, and he has your teeth: one to it to eat us (Tatars), and others you“.

Vasily Ivanovich in Troitsko - Sergiyevy Monastery christened the firstborn. After a baptism ceremony the grand duke lifted the baby on hands and transferred to Sergey of Radonezh`s tomb, as if entrusting to his protection the most nice Moscow devotee.

Centuries grand dukes Moscow married the Russian princesses from Rurik`s family - Tver, Ryazan, the grand duchess Sofya was a daughter of the grand duke Lithuanian Vitovt.

But Ivan Kalita`s descendants never married foreign princesses. The first the tradition was broken by Ivan the Third, second marriage he married (Sofya) Zoya Fomishn Paleolog, let and the girl without dowry, but the true Greek princess.

The marriage of the Moscow grand duke meant to the Russian people a lot of things. It was dynastic marriage of the highest level, the first after very long break, - the niece of the last emperor of the Byzantine empire Konstantin XI was married off by the Pope! From Italy (where after capture of Constantinople by Turks found a shelter escaped Paleologi) there arrived Zoya.

The second such marriage became again - second marriage of the son of Zoya Paleolog and Ivan III - Vasily Ivanovich - on the refugee`s niece from Polsko - the Lithuanian state of the Lithuanian prince Mikhail Glinsky - to Elena Vasilyevna. Elena was 25 years younger than Vasily Ivanovich and is unlike a moskovitok - beautiful and clever, she was able to be pleasant to men, having seen her, Vasily Ivanovich fell in love instantly.

Three years later after their wedding the firstborn - the son Ivan, future Ivan the Terrible was born. So, in - the first, the princess - the foreigner, and in - the second, Ivan - the child of great love of the elderly lord of the young Empire and the young Lithuanian beauty, his wife was mother of Grozny.

When the future to Grozny was three years old, his father, being on hunting in Volokolamsk, got sick and came to Moscow to die. He was disturbed by destiny of the young wife and son - the successor. The historian Ruslan Skrynnikov writes that the tradition prompted need to elect 5 - 6 most true dynasties and surely powerful boyars and to make of them the special commission which and to charge “to observe after death of the tsar the state and its family“.

Got used to resolve key issues of management on the volition, Vasily Ivanovich insisted on inclusion in this commission of the prince - the emigrant Mikhail Glinsky, the uncle of his wife. That was in the Russian state a stranger, for attempt to run back to Lithuania was imprisoned, but Vasily Ivanovich so solved! The commission was headed by Ivan`s uncle on the father - the specific prince Andrey Ivanovich Staritsky, representatives of the most notable after the house of the Kalitichy surname (descendants of the specific grand duke suzdalsko - the Nizhny Novgorod Boris Konstantinovich, the foe of the Moscow dynasty) brothers princes Vasily and Ivan Shuyskiye, near advisers of Vasily III Mikhail Yuryev and Mikhail Vorontsov entered into it.

But in a year palace revolution was made - the widowed grand duchess Elena Vasilyevna stripped of power two of seven regents - trustees. It brought closer to itself the prince Ivan Ovchinu - Obolensky, Boyarskaya`s head of the Duma. The prince Ivan is the person strong-willed, become famous on the battlefield and granted by Vasily III the highest title of the equerry - it was dissatisfied that he was pushed aside from participation in the current public administration. Elena Vasilyevna made him the lover (as were whispered at court), and the prince Ivan on her instigation also made revolution. Were arrested and later A. I. Staritsky and M. V. Glinsky are destroyed.

Elena Glinskaya, the foreign princess, became the first after the legendary Kiev grand duchess Olga, that is in 600 years, the ruler of the state, she governed five years.

Of the tsar Agrafena Chelyadnina, the sister of the equerry and the favourite prince Ovchina - Obolensky is appointed the teacher of the future of Grozny. When Ivan reached seven years, Ivan Ivanovich Chelyadnin - Agrafena Chelyadnina`s nephew became his uncle (tutor). Later he received from the young monarch and a dignity of the equerry which was carried by his uncle I. F. Ovchina - Telepnyov - Obolensky.

All on - related!

Be continued.