Rus Articles Journal

Ioann Grozny or Ivan Veliky? The father and the grandfather of

Exists opinion that Ivan the Terrible as the first Russian tsar is a founder of the uniform Russian state.

However it does not correspond to historical realities in any way. The uniform state is built by efforts of at least three grand dukes Moscow - the thorough foundation was laid by the grandfather of Grozny and its full the namesake Ivan Vasilyevich (usually it is called Ivan the Third). It the first accepted a title “The sovereign vseya Russia“. Since 1470 - x years it steadily and very firmly pursued the policy which received the name “collecting of Russian lands“.

Originally it was only one, but the strongest among several grand dukes (governed Tver, Ryazan, suzdalsko - Nizhny Novgorod and others, and not just one Vladimir and Moscow). Ivan Vasilyevich attached the Rostov principality and the grand duchy Yaroslavl.

Accession (in fact - a gain) the Novgorod republic in 1470 - 1471 was the most ambiguous. The gain is spoken well by the fact that in the annexed Novgorod mass confiscation of lands at the Novgorod boyars hostile to Moscow was carried out, and these extensive lands began to be distributed as the first estates. So there were landowners - the mass phenomenon as a result of defeat of the Novgorod republic. However we will note that to boyars - Novgorodians (that who was not exposed in open change) after confiscation of their ancestral lands allocated estates of the same or bigger size in other counties of the state.

In 1480 Ivan the Third finally and irrevocably dumped in Russia the power of strongly weakened khans of the Golden Horde by then. Ivan proclaimed himself the Autocrat - that is the monarch, independent of anybody. The business begun by the ancestor his Dmitry Ivanovich in the field Kulikov was complete and that is remarkable, absolutely bloodless - the Russian and Tatar armies stood two months opposite to each other on banks of the river of Ugra, but Tatars did not dare to attack the strongest Russian army.

In 1483-85 Ivan Vasilyevich managed to break the main opponent of his sort among grand dukes - the grand duke Tver. Tver fell. Thus, the first Russian autocrat and the sovereign vseya Russia Ivan Vasilyevich (Ivan III) made association of almost all Russian lands under the power (except for the Pskov republic and the grand duchy Ryazan).

The second Russian autocrat - Vasily Ivanovich - was Ivan III and Sofia Paleolog`s younger son, the Byzantine princess. He was born on March 25, 1479. After death of the successor of a throne - Ivan Molody, the son Ivan III from first marriage - there was a fight for a succession to the throne from which Vasily Ivanovich came out the winner. He was appointed at first the grand duke Novgorod and Pskov, and then a sopravitel of the father Ivan III after whose death Vasily Ivanovich freely came to the throne on October 27, 1505.

Vasily III continued policy of the father in relation to Lithuania and Poland - “collecting of Russian lands“. Accession to Moscow of all West Russian areas, and immediate tasks - accession of the certain cities and areas and upholding of interests of Orthodoxy in the Lithuanian state was its ultimate goal. In particular - protection of the sister of Vasily III, the queen Polish Elena, against infringement of her belief, and also recognition from Lithuania and Poland of a title of the Moscow grand duke - “The sovereign vseya Russia“. (That in fact meant collapse of the rights of the grand duke Lithuanian on is southern - Russian lands!)

After death of the king Polish Alexander his brother Sigismund was elected to the Lithuanian throne. He imposed requirement about return of the cities occupied with Moscow, but was refused. Then the prominent and rich Lithuanian grandee prince Mikhail Glinsky came over to the side of Moscow. Its groups and other sluzhily princes the Lithuanian lands began to be at war. In 1512 Vasily III Ivanovich acted in a campaign again and besieged Smolensk. In two years Smolensk surrendered, and at Orsha the Moscow troops suffered cruel defeat from the hetman prince Konstantin Ostrozhsky, the famous Lithuanian magnate and the talented commander (the fact that the prince Ostrozhsky was a leader of orthodox party in the Lithuanian state is interesting).

Fight for Smolensk continued not one year, “the Novgorod history“ repeated - the considerable part of Smolensk boyars sought to be postponed back to Lithuania for what many of them lost the heads (the deputy Smolensk prince V. V. did not allow mutiny of Smolensk boyars. Mute - Shuysky, his name to us still will meet). Moscow began to move local land owners deep into of the Russian state and to give them estates and an ancestral lands on the new place, and on their place settled residents of Tver, Novgorodians, residents of Yaroslavl and Muscovites.

In 1511 was finally and the Pskov republic is irrevocably attached and again “the Novgorod experience“ with resettlement and updating of structure of the Pskov nobility was applied. Vasily skillfully pitted two applicants for the last specific grand duchy - Ryazan, preparing also its final accession to the Russian kingdom.

The imperial ambassador which arrived to Moscow, the baron a background - Gerberstein, was a person very observant and left behind extremely interesting memoirs, in particular to them he wrote that Vasily Ivanovich possesses such huge power what is not present at any other monarch in Europe. The sovereign vseya Russia pursued tough domestic policy, however his board did without executions. At all love to resolve the state issues samolichno, Vasily did not change tradition of a joint management of the state with the Seigniorial Duma consisting of the first aristocrats of the state at all.

From first marriage with Solomoniya Saburova Vasily had no children, and in 1526 he divorced her, violently tonsured Solomoniya in the nun and married the princess Elena, the daughter of the prince Vasily Glinsky. From this marriage sons Ivan, future Ivan the Terrible, and Yury were born.

Vasily III, judging by stories of contemporaries, was temper severe and abrupt; he was the typical Moscow prince. Vasily III from malignant abscess died on December 3, 1533.

Be continued.