Ioann Grozny or Ivan Veliky? The tsar Ivan Vasilyevich in memory of national
Perhaps, any historical figure does not cause among the Russian thinking community of big disputes, than the first Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible.
There is even a term “Ivan Veliky“. But in ancient folklore other characteristic - “The tsar - a dog“ remained and absolutely. The historian Vladimir Kobrin wrote: “Will be in national history of people with such resistant popularity in mass consciousness a little as Ivan the Terrible.
Possibly, in this phenomenon a lot of things connected. And inescapable worshipful feeling before the strong personality, and the undoubted brightness of this person, especially in comparison with mediocrities which visited after it on the Russian throne very much. And horror before a sadism and cruelty, before terrible executions.
The tsar Ivan in national folklore is various. In one songs he is the hero who took Kazan. However, and under walls of enemy fortress he shows unrestrained cruel temper: it was worth slightly - being late slightly to explosion of undermining under city walls in comparison with imperial calculations as already “the monarchic heart rasserditovatsya, he ordered pushkaryov to execute - to hang up“.
And the people who only were “in a regiment clever, people clever, homo sapienses“ managed to persuade the tsar not to hurry. And still here it though is quick-tempered, but also is easily appeased. In other song the people bitterly mourn Grozny: “You rise, rise, you, our orthodox tsar... the tsar Ivan Vasilyevich, you are our father!“
A as the folklore tsar Ivan talks to own son:
Here the tsar as night is dark,
Zrevel the tsar as a lion yes an animal darkened: “Tell
, a dog, about change great! You on the brother will tell
, so not to see the brother, On yourself you will tell
, will lose the head“ .
In other case Grozny boasts:
The first boyar in a copper I order to weld, I order to put
of Other boyar on a stake, I order to skaznit
of the Third boyar soon.
On Russian North - the West the most famous critical fairy tale about Grozny - the tsar - “Appeared why change was started in Russia“.
In the fairy tale it is told that Ivan Vasilyevich sent ambassadors to all kings and princes and demanded to render him tribute. Kings and princes everything gathered and wrote the diploma, and in the diploma was told that if the tsar Ivan guesses riddles, then they will give him 12 barrels of gold and will render annual tribute. If does not guess, then it has to descend from a kingdom. And riddles three: that udaly all on light that it is the loveliest on light that is the most sweet on light. Thought - tsareva boyars guessed, princes and clever people and foretold nothing clever.
Urgent time has come, the tsar went to the East to a white stone for guessing of riddles. On the road he met the little man - the old man building church. They got to talking, and the tsar about the help asked. The old man promised to help, but on condition that when the tsar receives 12 barrels with gold, will give one to it. The tsar promised and then the old man told that udaly all on light of an eye - where I will look, right there I see everything. The sun red as will light is the loveliest, all have fun, and water is the most sweet - without it it is impossible to live. There went the tsar, told answers and received 12 barrels with gold. Went back, it is necessary to a flank with gold to the old man to give. The tsar began to consult on suite. It is a lot of, speaks, we have troops and everything should be contained, and the old man - why to it it is so much gold? Better we will take out two parts of gold from a barrel and we will pour to sand, from above we will leave gold: the old man will also not notice.
Ivan Vasilyevich drove up to the old man. Here, speaks, you a gold barrel. The old man answers: “Well, the Tsar the Russian, Ivan you are Vasilyevich and Grozny! You entered change into Russia orthodox, and never you will eradicate it from now on, and another someone. Reason of all this you, Tsar. I rescued you and your life; you promised me for it a gold barrel, and instead of gold pay in sand“. The tsar sees that the person is not idle time, and tearfully asks to take any barrel of gold. The old man answers: “I do not need your gold, and I will live without your gold, and the truth was necessary. You changed the truth, and this change, I repeat again, on eyelids of centuries there will be in Russia, both you, and another who cannot eradicate it: to all this evil of the reasons. - Also there was before the tsar neither old man, nor church. Ivan Vasilyevich understood what was told with him by the Lord.
We will try to slightly open a little a mystery veil over this outstanding statesman. Many facts from his life are known only to scientists - historians, and bad knowledge generates terrible conjectures and false representations. Ruslan Skrynnikov believed that Ivan the Terrible the first in the Russian history made terror a core of public administration, at it extremely hardy tradition of management of the huge and multinational country, first of all, through violence appeared. Deification of such policy - oprichnik terror and disorder of Novgorod in 1570.
Ivan the Terrible was at fed the authorities from 1533 to 1584, more than fifty years, during this time there were very many events therefore it is no wonder that by the time of its board the particular interest is shown.