What are “hot“ particles dangerous by? And again radiation...
Antoine Henri Becquerel who opened radioactivity in 1896 was, obviously, and the first victim - he got burns. Then there were Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Trimayl - Aylend and... Chernobyl.
After the Chernobyl accident of 1986 in the territory of Eastern Europe there was a set is radioactive the polluted zones. Emission from the destroyed fourth block of a Chernobyl NPP was in the form of radioactive aerosols. Rainfall on the way of a radioactive cloud contained a large amount of radionuclides.
The zones polluted by radionuclides exist and now. In their Russia especially there is a lot of in the Bryansk region, first of all in the Bryansk woods. There are dangerous zones and in other regions, for example, in the Oryol and Tula areas. After the Chernobyl accident the dosimetric map of these places reminded a spotty camouflage. Then it was worth passing several hundreds of meters across the district - and the power of a dose changed much. Even the nervous laughter attacked when oak leaves of the size of a leaf of a burdock caught sight.
Now, quarter of the century later, the main danger is constituted by radioactive “hot“ particles . Mean by them small (the size from 20 to 100 microns) dust-like particles with high specific activity. They are easily carried by wind and are so small that the dustproof mechanism of a nasopharynx does not prevent penetration them in lungs. The particles which got to pulmonary hot fabric get stuck there for many years and become a source of internal radiation. Around them in the sphere with a radius in several millimeters (and it is the big mass of cages) the power of a dose reaches levels at which there are mutations and the malignization (developing of a malignant tumor) is possible.
Besides it must be kept in mind that for biological objects dependence “dose / effect“ - nonlinear and nonthreshold. It means that any, as much as small dose of ionizing radiation causes this or that effect in the person.
Researches of the “hot“ particles which are formed at nuclear explosion began in 50 - e years of the last century. Then experts came to conclusion that “hot“ particles it is not more dangerous, than the general radiation. However were at that time studied only an alpha - active radionuclides; the Chernobyl emission is the whole bouquet of radioactive materials, and the amount of fine fuel in emission is estimated at 8 tons. In the polluted territories also the beta - disintegration and scale - the radiation which penetration is much higher is found.
In the Bryansk woods the dangerous centers will remain some more tens and even hundreds of years. The strontium half-life period - 90 makes 29 years, caesium - 137 - 30 years, plutonium - 239 - 24 thousand years. At the same time strontium - 90 by twenty times radiotoksichny caesium; though in emission there was a little strontium, it is impossible to dismiss it in any way.
Summer of 2010 in the Briansk region about three tens local wildfires were registered. What happens if the fires in the Bryansk woods continue, it is necessary only to guess. Emergence of a new radioactive cloud is not excluded. Further everything will depend at most and the directions of wind. At a fair wind the radioactive cloud potentially can reach Moscow in several hours. Let`s call it a new Bryansk roulette...