On Knowledge Day we learn... why people have such big brain?
Are known that the person has the largest (concerning weight and the size of a body) a brain, in comparison with other beings on Earth. Why it occurred?
According to archeological excavations, Earth nature, at least, did three times attempts to create reasonable beings, but only the third attempt was successful.
The dinosaur under the name “stenonikhozavr“ - a pangolin about 1,5 m in height, warm-blooded, with 4 - chamber heart, as at people was the first. It went on hind legs, had forward dexterous paws - hands with a big hvatatelny finger and an impressive cranium which held a brain not less monkey. This attempt was not successful, and stenonikhozavra died out 100 million years ago.
The second attempt is dolphins with a brain of not less human, and crinkles at them are twice more, than at people. The brain of dolphins increased twice - 47 and 20 million years ago when people were not also in the project. Dolphins at first lived on the land, had extremities, and then went to the sea and strongly grew wiser. Their overland relatives, for example, elephants, - too quite clever and with a big brain. Dolphins possess the language on difficulties coming to human, only we for the present did not learn to understand it. Dolphins - only, except the person, a being who recognizes himself in a mirror.
More - less reasonable hominids appeared with much smaller about 10 million years ago, than at dolphins, a brain, but, thanks to some special circumstances, they grew wiser and grew in mankind. This history well keeps within a hypothesis that the nature (or God) does not suffer more than one reasonable being and for his creation made a number of consecutive experiments.
Very long there was an opinion that the fact that the person improved instruments of labor was the cause of growth of a human brain, passed to hunting etc. But, seemingly, it not really is true: the stone axe, according to excavation, almost did not change for that time for which the brain of the person increased three times (probably, the consequence is accepted for the reason).
It seemed obvious earlier that than the brain is more, that the person is cleverer. And the statistics, it seems, confirmed it. But comparison of mass of a brain usual and, undoubtedly, clever people showed that this regularity is observed not always. For example, the brain of the great chemist Yu. Libikh weighed less than 1 kg while the average mass of a brain of the European of about 1,4 kg. Cases when people lived are known and created with strongly injured and almost absent brain.
Now most of researchers came to a conclusion that I.Q. depends not on quantity of brain cages (neurons), and on the number of communications between them. There is also a hypothesis that the brain of the person began to increase under the influence of climatic changes and complication of a surrounding situation. Adherents of this hypothesis consider that difficulties of a survival in the changing conditions, continuous search of a subsistence served as training for a brain and promoted its increase like muscles. However reliable confirmation of this hypothesis is not received yet.
Generally, there are, at least, 4 hypotheses of the reasons of growth of a human brain which seem rather reasonable:
- creation of more effective instruments of labor;
- development of communication between people, emergence of the speech;
- radical changes in world around and growth of a brain as adaptive reaction;
- crossing with Neanderthal men who had a brain more human that led to a genetic mutation.
The latest genetic researches show that the brain of the person grew and became complicated as a result of a huge number of mutations throughout a small interval of time. Perhaps, it occurred from - for socialization of human society at which the raised mental abilities gave advantages.
In any case, there are no doubts that the brain of larger size gave to people unlimited opportunities of all-round development. The person with larger brain has more chances to be talented. The famous Russian specialist in nervous system of the person S. V. Savelyev considers that the size of a brain of the certain person matters for his intellectual activity, creates for it more opportunities. It approximately the same as to use the computer instead of the calculator. And already use of these opportunities depends on each person.
It is known that among people with a big brain there are more idlers as such brain demands big power expenses. The brain quickly is tired and demands life easier. But if such person overcomes laziness, then can make the work quicker, it is more and better, than other people. The big size of a brain gives to the person more variability - abilities to develop and analyze more options.
Owners of the biggest brain are Mongols - are considered as recognized idlers (on this subject they have many proverbs and sayings, for example, “at the Mongol never comes to an end tomorrow“). But people with a big brain are steadier against stresses. However the mass of a brain (on the basis of tests of the American scientists - measuring instruments ouch - Cue) does not influence ingenuity.
Generally, the brain should be not grown up (that can be made, for example, by means of physical exercises), and to train, creating new communications between neurons, or as it is told in the Soviet movie of all times and the people “Let`s live till Monday“, it is necessary to train memory and the speech.
Or as our genius told, “to study, to learn and to study once again!“ Not all like this quote from - for a name of her author, but it is the truth, and will not tell better! So who wants to make something that looks for opportunities and who does not want (probably, brains too big) - looks for the reasons.
And all to all of them the best!