What did V. M. Bradis become famous for? Of course, Bradis`s tables!
Krom of a drawing table with the Whatman paper pinned to it not to present the Soviet engineer was without slide rule and Bradis`s tables. Both that, and another was required for production of calculations, and now is everywhere forced out by calculators and computers, but at my generation still raises the confused smile and strange gripes in eyes. Working tools of your youth are ranked as museum artifacts. It is time also for you in the museum, buddy!
On popularity among Soviet “technicians“ the creation of Vladimir Modestovich Bradis (1890 - 1975) was comparable with Pythagorean theorem. “Bradis`s tables“ were in due time the same amplifier of intelligence what now we read computers.
We already so got used to these to “the considering boxes“ that we are not surprised to the result which is unmistakably given by them. And did not prevent to be surprised. Really, from where the calculator knows that sin (14o) = 0. 2419?
The calculator calculates this value, using the famous mathematicians way of representation of function in the form of power series long ago. In drawing representation of function of a sine in the form of power series is shown. The first formula allows to calculate a sine of any argument with a fine precision.
Practice usually requires accuracy less. For what it is enough three first composed, and sometimes and two. This formula is programmed in a chip of the calculator or in the program of the computer.
V. M. Bradis`s merit consisted that he thought up the way allowing to reduce tiresome calculations to a minimum. To choose the functions, most necessary for engineering calculations, to once count their values with the acceptable accuracy in a wide interval of arguments. And to present results of calculations in the form of tables. Laborious calculations V. M. Bradis should do much. But these calculations saved a lot of time to all subsequent users of its tables.
These tables became the Soviet best-seller. Since 1930 - x years they were published nearly annually within thirty years. This book was read by millions. School students, students, engineers - Bradis`s tables were at all. Often on the question “And Who Such This Bradis?“ the answer was: “Well that, which table“. When own name grows to work of yours whether it is a synonym of the world glory?
Vladimir Modestovich Bradis, despite record circulations of “tables“, in the Soviet country the millionaire did not become. But life lived quite safe.
He was born on December 23, 1890 in Pskov. Surname Bradis, most likely, Lithuanian or Estonian origin. On one of legends, Vladimir Modestovich`s grandfather, Vasily, in the childhood remained an orphan and Bradisov was adopted by the family living in Pskov. On the other hand, data that this grandfather Vasily was an unter - the officer approximately in 1840 - e years suggests me an idea: the patriarch of a sort Bradisov quite could be also from kantonist, zabrivavshikhsya in the Russian army of boys from the Jewish towns of Lithuania or present Belarus. Business quite possible in border Pskov where the population was rather motley. Among the famous residents of Pskov the marshal Rokossovsky and the writer Kaverin - both not so great Russian origins are registered.
Vladimir was an eldest son in a family of the teacher Modest Vasilyevich Bradis. Studied brilliantly, but in 1907 from a gymnasium it was excluded. Volodya was caught behind distribution of illegal literature. After execution of 18 years, in 1909, it was banished to the Tobolsk province. Vladimir in three years of the reference managed to be prepared for entering a university. In imperial time revolutionary sins in youth did not cross out all life finally.
In 1912 V. M. Bradis becomes the physicist`s student - mathematical faculty of the St. Petersburg university. Upon termination of it left the assistant at department of an abstract mathematics. At the same time Vladimir Modestovich taught in Commercial school at Putilovsky plant.
At that time the Putilovsky plant was the first among the Russian steel and engineering plants. In Europe it conceded only to Krupp`s plants in Germany and Armstrong in England. Workers of Putilovsky plant were the highest paid in Russia. Besides, they received from the enterprise and non-monetary bonuses. The possibility of training in factory commercial school was one of such bonuses.
As the Putilovsky plant contained the school, training in it for workers was free or preferential. The school it gave the general education in volume of real school. Graduates of commercial schools had the right for receipt in technical higher educational institutions.
Teaching in Commercial school showed to V. M. Bradis importance of training of pupils of technical educational institutions in methods of numerical calculations. The engineer or the technician deal with numbers and have to feel these numbers well.
In Putilovsky school the young mathematician got acquainted with the future wife, the teacher of the same school Elizabeth Cheburkina. The future promised to V. M. Bradis the academic career, and the arising family - decent existence.
But in 1917 Petrograd captured by revolution than further, especially turns into the city where to live becomes hungriest, uncomfortable and simply life-threatening. So V. M. Bradis appears in Tver.
In 1919 the institute of national education, future teacher`s college opens here. The capital mathematician, besides with the revolutionary biography, becomes the leading teacher of new educational institution and quickly does the academic career. Its scientific interests: methods of calculations. Its pedagogical work: technique of teaching mathematics.
V. M. Bradis did not consider the well-known “Four-digit mathematical tables“ as the main business of the life at all. They became natural further work on training in methods of calculations, begun in Putilovsky school. In the course of drawing up these tables, the part of routine computing work was performed by Bradis`s students. The first “Four-digit tables of natural logarithms“ appear in 1928 .
There is a Latin saying that it is better to be the first in the village, than the second in the capital. In provincial Tver professor V. M. Bradis undoubtedly was the first. Not only scientists, professors, even experts with the higher education in 1930 - e years in the city there was a little. In 1933 all intellectual elite it was succeeded to lodge in one house, the so-called house inzhenerno - technical workers (ITR). Tatarsky Lane where this house left one wing, in Soviet period was called Spetsialistov Lane. In the house of ITR allocated to a family of professor V. M. Bradis the four-room apartment. The majority of capital professorate could only dream of it.
It is quite possible that saved stay in a country town and life to Vladimir Modestovich. Remain it in Leningrad, on it, most likely, ruthlessly would pass a skating rink of repressions of 1930 - x years. And in the spirit of those cheerful years there would be “Bradis`s Tables“ just anonymous “Four-digit mathematical tables“. Deleted from the well-known Soviet smash hit “The song about the passer“ a name of one of authors, the repressed poet, the Leningrad resident B. Kornilov! In the city of Kalinin (Tver was renamed into honor of “the all-Union head“ in 1931) the state security to professor Bradis had no claims, even despite his oddish surname.
Now when Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin in Tver is tried to be forgotten stronger, the name of Vladimir Modestovich Bradis suddenly entered a circle of those names of which it is not a shame to city to be proud. Along with the merchant Afanasy Nikitin and the singer Mikhail Krug whose grave on Dmitrovo - the Cherkassk cemetery of Tver is absolutely near a gravestone of professor V. M. Bradis.