From where cockroaches undertook?
Looking at alone pottering about cockroach, I often caught myself on thought: “And what? It anything. Against a great number of other insects quite nice copy“. However it is worth seeing the cockroach moving assemblage as from former sympathy there is no trace left also. But and sometimes it is possible to tell the same about people... So let`s be discharged for a while of fastidious feeling and we will look at a cockroach as on one more remarkable creation of the nature.
Invasion from the South
“Here also became Tarakan the winner,
I of the woods and water with the master.
Obeyed animals to moustached.
(To fail, damned!) “
(K. Chukovsky) , of course, can be not loved
of Cockroaches, but it is impossible to forget that tarakanovy - very ancient and respected by biologists group of insects. There were yet neither birds, nor animals, nor dinosaurs when ancient cockroaches already roamed about the woods of which coal is formed then 300 million years ago. From all modern groups of insects is more ancient tarakanovy only than a dragonfly.
Besides, even the nonspecialist, examining prints of cockroach ancestors, easily recognizes in them the importunate homebodies, appearance of men with a big mustache almost did not change. Unless then all of them it is universal flew and had long yaytseklad which nowadays atrophied. Despite ability to fly, already in those ancient times cockroaches chose a reserved way of life, creeping in the decaying forest laying.
For all the long history stirred distribution of cockroaches only cold. These insects are extremely thermophilic. About 80% of types live only in a tropical zone and in the fresh air. Only several “tempered“ wild types managed to make breakthrough on the North, for example, to a steppe and Lappish cockroach which manage to winter in the form of eggs or larvae in a forest laying and under bark of trees. However, from four thousand types of our moustached compatriots interest at best two - but what!
It is necessary to tell that east Slavs were already lucky - their cockroaches “tamed“ in the last turn. And here civilized insects mastered the Southern and Western Europe no later than 400 years ago. At first the “European Union“ was entered by black cockroaches, and then they were pressed by cockroaches red. From where they migrated - from Africa or Asia - plainly it is not known, but what from the southern areas is precisely.
Cockroaches reached Russia only in the second half of the 17th century. Black arrived from Asia (assume that from Turkey), and red the Russian soldiers who came back from Germany after Seven years` war brought in satchels and behind cuffs of sleeves. From here and the second name of a red cockroach - “Prussian“. Serbians and Croats nicknamed him with the German color too - “Schwab`s buba“ (Swabia, as well as Prussia - the German territory). Whether in revenge, whether for some other reason Germans often call a red cockroach “hare“.
Red was quicker than black, having left that only the most first floors and cellars. But black looks much more impressively: it is twice larger than the Prussian, his body shines, as varnished, and from - under small the nadkrylyev sticks out an impressive paunch. There live black cockroaches longer red, one development of a larva can drag on for four years.
In the 17th century together with the Cuban sugar cane to Europe one more species of a cockroach - American came, but black and red it did not make the worthy competition.
The word “cockroach“ (ukr. “òàðãàí“), most likely, Turkic origin. Tatars had such exclusive layer - Tarkhany which representatives were exempted from payment of taxes. The city of Tmutarakan, known on “Tale of Igor`s Campaign“, as historians assume, was located on Taman Peninsula and received the name at all not because in it there lived the darkness of cockroaches. It is considered that it belonged to Khazars and at first he was nicknamed “Taman - Tarkhan“ that on - Turkic meant “the city freed from taxes“ Anyway as a result of a rusicha awarded with Turkic titles uncountable hordes of moustached house freeloaders.
“The name of the “pet“ who was not assessed with any taxes and the uninvited resident of the house of TARAKAN, appears, comes from very honourable Turkic title tarkhan“. Should telling
that at first the cockroach did not cause such disgust as now, and the Russian peasants even in own way loved it. He was their peculiar symbol of house wellbeing - a pier if there are in the house cockroaches then there warmly and nourishingly. It is brightly expressed also in the sayings collected by Dahl: “There would be a log hut - there will be also cockroaches“, “Black cockroaches are got - to profit“, “Prusaki breed - to good“, “Cockroaches from the house creep - to the fire“. There was even a custom - when moving to the new house there surely let in cockroaches from the house old. And many immigrants and to the Far East even carried the faithful lodgers to Siberia with themselves.
Besides. Cockroaches were tried to be used … in the medical purposes. They were dried, pounded in powder, did tincture and hoped to recover with its help from pleurisy, dropsy, an ulcer... It is no secret that drew on cockroaches also vodka which and was called “tarakanovka“.
However over time these numerous freeloaders began to annoy people - especially after they learned that cockroaches are carriers of dysentery, eggs of worms and still a set of unpleasant diseases. Especially freely these insects began to feel after there were high-rise buildings with a network of refuse chutes and air shafts which moustached used not worse than Bruce Willis. Then - that people also declared to cockroaches ruthless, but quite often unsuccessful war.
A joke in a subject: Two cockroaches eat
- Came I into the next restaurant yesterday: purity, order, anywhere motes!
- Well you at a table say scurrilous things? Give though to eat quietly!
we will talk About hardy nature of our hero already next time.