Saarbruecken. What it, capital of the State of Saar?
of D`Allemagne o ù j` é coute la pluie en vacances
D`Allemagne o ù j`entends le rock en silence
D`Allemagne o ù j`ai des souvenirs d`en face
O ù j`ai des souvenirs d`enfance
Leninplatz et Anatole France
Auf Wiedersehen Lili Marl è ne
Reparlez - moi des roses de G ö ttingen etc.
(Patricia Kaas, “D ´ Allemagne“)
“Germany where I listen to a rain on vacation, Germany where I hear fate in silence“, - fragile sings and such it is typical - the atypical Frenchwoman Patricia Kaas. However, whether Frenchwoman? She is from the French Forbakh, from Saar. Only six kilometers from the German Saarbruecken.
And this earth - the German France? Or French Germany? Try sort for so many years of wars, boundary skirmishes, direct transitions from hand to hand, sections, annexations, protectorates, referenda.
Now Saar - the smallest, not richest earth of Germany. With only one large capital city of Saarbruecken. Today`s capital consists of three towns which united in 1909 - actually Saarbruecken, Saint - Johan and Malshtadt - Burbakh. We will also devote to the capital of the State of Saar our today`s reporting.
Stories, history the richest is a little, but we, alas, are limited to “an edition format“.
For the first time fortress “Kastellum Sarabrukka“ is mentioned in 999 in chronicles of the king Otton the Third. The status of the city of Saarbruecken receives about 1120, and since 1353 takes over Houses of Nassau where will stay to the Vienna Congress of 1814 - 1815. Tragicly and the Reformation which was hard going on these lands and Thirty years` war devastate the city, to the middle of the 17th century in it there are only about 60 inhabitants, only eight houses - and it is not enough hopes for revival.
But the most convenient transport arrangement, the deposits of minerals known since antique times, and also numerous emigrants are workers, dealers, scientists and wise government of the count Wilhelm Friedrich von Nassau who allowed entry into the devastated lands to Jewry without disfranchisement, give to the city the second life from the first third of the 18th century. The famous architect Shtengel reconstructs the lock of Saarbruecken in the 18th century and builds world famous church of Lyudvigskirkhe in Baroque style, “to a vayssa to Lutheran church, egliz Blanch“, very similar to wedding “cake of meringue“ and absolutely unlike on one of baroque churches of Europe.
One of the most tragic pages of history of the city - Free - Prussian war and battle at Shpikheren and Forbakh`s heights in which victory with huge losses was won on August 6, 1870 by the German side.
When, it is imperceptible for itself having passed germano - the French border, you rise by these most beautiful, low, but very strategic heights - that everywhere, everywhere - in the woods, coppices, at roads, on fields - graves, graves, graves. French, Germans, again French - and there are a lot of characteristic combinations of the French names and German surnames - and vice versa. The well-groomed, not forgotten burials - everywhere though so much years passed.
And then, in 1870, all city turned into hospital, wounded lay in tents in parks and even in shops of plants. Self-sacrificing women of Saarbruecken carried water on military positions, worked in mines and nursed wounded. In German - the French park of Saarbruecken the monument to women of Saar is put.
During World War II of bombing of allies burned the old city. Only in October, 1944 about 350 000 fire bombs - as revenge for the concentration camp Bremm in the neighborhood of the city where the British prisoners of war contained were dropped. And if to consider that practically all Saarbruecken of that time was constructed of pink vogezsky sandstone which collapses easily, scattered from fire, then it is difficult to present the scale of destructions even now.
But the city rose from ruins. Old churches and the areas, country houses on coast of Saar, barochno - the Renaissance lock with the unique historical museum and even very ugly building of the theater presented in due time by Hitler`s administration for support Nazi on elections are carefully restored.
It would seem, it is so natural to translate the name of the city as “Saar bridges“. But not everything is so simple - to bridges of Saar the name of the relation has no. Saarbruecken is the modified Celtic word “Sarabrigga“ that meant “the rock on Saar“, and in the South German dialect it remained still.
Chirping on “, Saar“ inhabitants call the dialect - “Saarbrigga Platte“. It is from outside extremely difficult to understand it to the person and, generally, it is not necessary. Practically any resident of Saarbruecken with pleasure will pass on “õîõäîé÷“ or French if it is required to explain something. “Saarbryukera“ are very open and friendly, friendly, democratic, are an expert in good kitchen and wine, are slow and, unlike most of Germans, are very witty and inclined to impromptus. French all - they in many respects, of course.
If in Germany want to emphasize the high status of the city, then Universit ä will surely tell about it “; tsstadt“ - the university city. Existence of university - an important issue also means that the city is built completely in system of the European education and has prospects of development. The university, offices of the Max Planck Institute and Fraunkhofer - Institute, own school of Arts with the fine museum, the only Center of studying of artificial intelligence in Germany, frantsuzsko - the German Higher school, Mining institute - the intellectual status of Saarbruecken is very high.
And here mines and steel works lose the importance in the eyes. The closed and flooded developments, the old waste heaps turned nowadays into green hills and the most beautiful building of Mountain management built by Groppius in 70 - e years of the 19th century testify to former mining power of the area.
It is possible to write about beauty of the State of Saar infinitely - and about the river Saar, its parokhodika, its meander - to Saarshlyayfa, about spurs of the Vosges, about small silent ancient pansionchik on river banks where only a two-three of lodgers, about ceramic factory of Leroy and Bokh firm in Metlakh and the tremendous metlakhsky museum of ceramics, a tile and porcelain where there pass cycles of piano concerts (here I will already gather, I will write), about vineyards and wonderful world famous Gevyurtsstraminer wine and the wine road France - Germany, about a medieval castle of Saarburg, about rest, silence and the world poured now in air of this earth which endured so many wars.
Come to Saar. Let it lie far from the known tourist German routes - that more interesting. It is necessary to fall in love with this such French German earth.