Russian cookery. What its features?
Life of the people, its material culture develop under the influence of natural, economic and social factors. Therefore clothes, types of dwellings and national cuisines of various people are so peculiar. However on formation of life, and in particular ethnic cuisine, the great influence is exerted by communications and a cultural exchange with other people.
Speaking about the Russian cookery, we mean modern cookery of the people of Russia into which along with primordially Russian dishes also many dishes borrowed other people enter. It, of course, does not deprive Russian cuisine of an originality and originality.
During natural evolution of our food some ancient Russian foods are forgotten now. Besides, preparation of some dishes underwent changes as a result of progress in technology of cooking and development of science about food. Therefore now it is inexpedient to raise a question of revival of all ancient Russian dishes. However it is necessary to think of wider use of those from them which were unfairly forgotten for various reasons.
What features of our national cookery? One of distinctive features - very rich range of fish, meat and vegetable snack and cold dishes. They created to Russian cuisine deserved glory around the world.
In one kitchen of people of the world, except the Russian, there is no such rich range of first courses, in particular filling soups (Russian cabbage soup, borsches, rassolniks, solyankas, etc.) . In food of the Russian people soups hold a specific place, and quality them always admired foreigners.
Russian cabbage soup already in an extreme antiquity was one of the most popular dishes. The range them very big - Russian cabbage soup sour with meat, pork smoked products, fish, golovizny, snetka, mushrooms, Russian cabbage soup daily, Russian cabbage soup fresh, lazy, Russian cabbage soup green etc.
Borsch is also widespread first course. There are many kinds of borsch - naval, Moscow, with mushrooms and prunes, Siberian and others.
Fish and meat solyankas, rassolniks, fish soup and very many soups similar to it which in old times called “ukham“ or “yukham“ have universal distribution.
The abundance of the baked products, especially from yeast dough is characteristic of the Russian cookery. Still ancient Anta - our ancestors - knew a secret of production of yeast dough while many people of Europe and Asia baked only unleavened bread. Therefore the range of these products created for centuries is so extremely rich: pies of the most different types and types (with meat, fish, mushrooms, porridges, cabbage, carrots, cottage cheese, apples, berries etc.) coulibiacs, rasstegais, kalatches, sochn, shanezhka, cheese cakes, fritters, pancakes, pancake-shaped pies and, at last, the well-known Russian pancakes which entered into our cookery to Kievan Rus`.
Very big place in our kitchen, as well as in kitchens of other people, in the past of grain-growers, was occupied and occupy porridges. “Porridge - our mother“, - the Russian proverb says. Porridges do not settle the range of the Russian dishes from grain. Different casseroles, cutlets and meatballs from porridges and, at last, remarkable krupenik from porridges with cottage cheese are very popular. Also haricot, peas and other bean are widely applied in Russian cuisine.
Due to the increase in consumption of vegetables, meat and fish the role of krupyany dishes decreased a little, but also now traditional Russian cuisine cannot be imagined without grain dishes. Also the range of grain changed. If in the ancient time the chronicler called only four grain crops in Russia - wheat, barley, millet and rye, then later wide popularity was won buckwheat also by grits, rice. Recently the corn began to extend. There were new types of krupyany products - air and swaged grains.
The abundance of reservoirs in our country promotes a wide circulation of dishes from fresh-water, through passage and sea fishes. First of all, it is necessary to call fish soup from a sterlet, a burbot, a dish from the boiled, stewed, fried and baked fish, a fish forcemeat dish and fish cutlet weight (the stuffed pike, a pike perch, cutlets and meatballs, etc.), the fish stuffed with porridge (the breams stuffed etc.), the baked products with fish, snack from fresh-salted fishes (a salmon, a Siberian salmon, a salmon etc.) smoked and sun-dried fish, caviar etc. to
In the 19th century considerable impact on Russian cuisine was exerted by French cuisine. From it many sauces, transparent broths, puff pastry were borrowed. At the same time and Russian cuisine exerted considerable impact on European, and in particular on French cuisine. In the last the Russian snack, the Russian sequence of giving of dishes etc. of
Thus began to be applied, the Russian cookery always was and remains still original and original. Now, when the international prestige of our Homeland reached unprecedented level and considerably economic, political, cultural ties, interest in all Russian, and including in the Russian cookery extended, strongly increased.
In the course of historical development the range not only dishes, but also food gradually changed, however the originality of our cookery generally remained.
To the middle of the 18th century. in Russia potatoes were not used, the swede, turnip, cabbage were the main vegetables. Now the swede and turnip as the main products, began to be applied less, but together with other vegetables they are a part of very many dishes. If earlier only the white cabbage was used, then red, color also other types of cabbage are more and more used now.
Rather recently tomatoes (tomatoes) began to be used at us, but now without them preparation of very many Russian soups, second courses and snack is impossible. After the food industry began to let out tomato puree and paste, the technology of preparation of many sauces, marinades, and also borsches and other dishes which part fresh tomatoes were changed.
Development of new areas of fishery and existence of refrigerating equipment promote fresh broader consumption of such fishes as a cod, a navaga, a flounder, a catfish, a haddock, a mullet, a mackerel, etc.
The organization of mass fishing of crabs and processing them in high-quality canned food enriched the range of raw materials used for preparation of cold appetizers.
Emergence of new types of grain - wheat, Artek, swaged grains, air grains - allowed to expand the range of krupyany dishes considerably.
Considerably the range of cold appetizers thanks to development of the canning industry increased. Now it is difficult to imagine our cookery without sprat, sardines, sprats, pepper of the stuffed, green peas (in garnishes and salads). Sausages and sausages form a basis for a number of dishes now (sausages and sausages with a garnish), enter sets of products for solyankas, borsch Moscow, are baked in pastry etc.
the Given examples show how systematic change of the range of products led to the fact that many low-nutritious low-calorie or very labor-consuming dishes were forgotten or replaced new, fuller and nutritious.
The modern cookery, proceeding from interests of strengthening of health of the people, in every possible way defends development of public catering on scientifically - a hygienic basis. To improve and diversify food of the population of our country, it is necessary to use all variety of Russian cuisine.