Rus Articles Journal

How Americans peddled the old stuff?

with The fact that not Columbus peddled old stuff you will surprise nobody now. What only theories about it do not exist! According to these theories, old stuff was peddled by both Vikings, and Templars, and the Chinese seafarers. And still - the fact which is absolutely documented - to America before Columbus swam the Bristol captain John Kabot (John Cabot) (apprx. 1450 - 1498) .

However old stuff had to be peddled also to its inhabitants, Americans. And history of opening of the continent by them is not less interesting, than history of moreplavaniye of Columbus.

Now Louisiana - small staff in the mouth of the river Mississippi. In 17 - m and in 18 - m a century so was called all huge valley of this river. In 1682 the dashing French businessman and the officer Rene - Robert Cavelie of de La Sal (Ren é - Robert Cavelier de La Salle) (1643 - 1687) with the workmate Henri de Tonti (Henri de Tonti) (1649 - 1704) on Indian pies went down across Mississippi from above, from that place where the river Illinois, to the mouth flows into it. Then called this Region of Louisiana in honor of the monarch ruling then in France, Ludovic (Louis) of XIV. Called and attached to New France, extensive French possession in America. “The king - the sun“ favourably accepted this gift.

In due time France, owning the valley of Mississippi, had chance to become the main owner of the North American continent. But in those days the destiny of America was decided in Europe. During Seven years` war (1756 - 1763) France lost Canada. After that Spaniards and Anglo-Saxon colonists began “to bite off“ poorly inhabited Louisiana on a piece. France had neither forces, nor desire to keep this overseas territory. Therefore in 1803 Louisiana was sold to the United States of America for 15 million dollars. With percent on the credit this sum made 23,2 million dollars. One hectare of recently acquired lands cost the United States 7 cents. As a result of this transaction of the USA practically doubled the territory. Now on the earth of the former French Louisiana 15 American states are placed.

In 1803 the value of purchase of Louisiana was not obvious to Americans at all. Many considered this purchase not only waste of money, but also illegal. In the Constitution of the USA nothing was told concerning purchase of territories from other states. Were also such who expected that this purchase will lead to an inevitable war with Spain whose colonial possession appeared in the neighbourhood now. Which - who not without justification considered purchase of Louisiana senseless. The United States will not have population to occupy such open spaces!

The president Thomas Jefferson (Thomas Jefferson) (1743 - 1826) did not treat such pessimists. The Louisiana transaction happened with its direct and interested participation. And when the United States grew the new territory, it charged to two courageous officers, the captain Merivezer Lewis (Meriwether Lewis) (1774 - 1809) and to his friend, the lieutenant William Clark (William Clark) (1770 - 1838) , to investigate this territory.

Lewis and Clark`s group consisted of 43 people. All necessary - food, the weapon, drugs, navigation devices, was placed by three big boats. Researchers were going to climb the right inflow of Mississippi, the river Missouri, so far as soon as are able, and there … And that will be there, nobody knew. “A space Odyssey“ and only!

Why Lewis and Clark chose for travel the river, clear. Freight of expedition made 6 tons and best of all river crafts were suitable for its transportation. Why the river Missouri was chosen, too it is easy to explain. The deep river with a slow current, current, from where - that with North - the West. Its source according to local Indians was very far. Obviously, the expedition across Missouri on the West will be able to progress further, the its ultimate goal, the Pacific Ocean will be closer.

Expedition went on May 14, 1804 from the city of Saint - Luis. Within 5 months researchers slowly moved ahead up the river. They wintered at Indians of the tribe mandan. It in the territory of the present State of North Dakota. If to look at the card, then it is possible to see that expedition till winter took place slightly less than a half of a way.

But cards - that just at Lewis and Clark was not! The card should be made him. Map of the novel country. Ways in this country were known only by Indians and trappers, white hunters who got in this country of a fur animal. The fur then in the USA, and in Canada, was appreciated not less, than gold.

One such trapper, Frenchman Toussaint Charbone (Toussaint Charbonneau) (1767 - 1843) , Lewis and Clark employed as the translator and the conductor. He turned out the translator useless as plainly did not master any of Indian languages though he long lived among Indians. He did not know English too. But unexpectedly useful was his young wife, the Indian from the tribe of shoshon who was called Sakagavey`s (Sacagawea) , (1788 - 1812) . It became both the conductor, and the translator of expedition. Sakagavey agreed with Indians, and those gave horses and provisions that allowed travelers to overcome the Rocky Mountains which followed ways.

It is natural that about existence of these mountains Lewis and Clark, starting on the journey, did not even suspect. Transition through the Rocky Mountains was the most difficult part of a way. In many respects facilitated it Sakagavey which showed passes familiar to it through passes. But the most important, presence of the woman at group indicated to counter Indians the peace purposes of expedition. At Indians the woman never accompanied fighting group.

Having passed through mountains, travelers reached the river which was called Colombia subsequently. From here on Indian pies expedition went down to the Pacific Ocean. On December 3, 1805 the objectives of travel were achieved. Near the mouth on the river bank the fort where participants of expedition wintered was constructed.

In a way back they acted on March 23, 1806. And already on September 23 travelers came back to Saint - Luis.

The discovery of America Americans began with Lewis and Clark`s expedition, so to speak. It turned out that absolutely nearby there are riches and beauty which any more in the world you will not find anywhere. So, already Lewis and Clark found in the Rocky Mountains the river Yellowstone in which valley one of remarkable American national parks with a set of geysers is located now.

Now Americans knew where it is necessary to move in search of new lands. They knew and ways on which it is necessary to move ahead on the West: valleys of the rivers flowing into Mississippi, first of all, the valley of the river Missouri.

John Jacob Astor (John Jacob Astor) (1763 - 1848) was one of the first who used information on a way to the Pacific Ocean . It planned to be fixed on the Pacific coast, to found there the city and the port to deliver furs to China. For this purpose in 1808 J. J. Astor founded “The American fur company“ and became the monopolist on trade in furs. It is unlikely Astor would achieve it, get he support in the top echelons of the American power, at vice-the president Clinton (then Klintona were in power too) and at the president Jefferson.

In 1810 Astor financed one more transamerican expedition which, using results of expedition of Lewis and Clark, reached the mouth of the river Colombia and based a fort and Astoria port there. J. J. Astor`s idea was carried out. The territory under the name Oregon was assigned to the USA. From here the ships, loaded fur began to go to China.