Rus Articles Journal

Neanderthal men: whether they left the genetic mark?

Neanderthal men, group a hominid (humanoid), inhabited Europe and Asia during from 300 to 28 thousand years ago then their traces disappear.

Part of this period they existed in parallel with the person of modern type (kromanyonets) of Homo sapiens. About the reasons of their disappearance still there are disputes.

Earlier was considered that Neanderthal men were ancestors of modern people, their parallel existence was not found out yet. Then began to consider, being guided by data of excavation that Neanderthal men and kromanyonets are two branches of a family tree of mankind which ancestors was a person orthograde.

Neanderthal men and kromanyonets differed, first of all, anatomic. Kromanyontsa were more successful model and were settled on the ground, and here Neanderthal men died out. However though it were two various species, but types the most closely related, and long contact between them (during the millennia) in principle could lead to hybridization with the advent of prolific posterity.

Neanderthal men appeared in Europe more than 300 thousand years ago probably because of some catastrophic climatic changes, and after arrival to Europe of kromanyonets, about 50 thousand years ago, gradually disappeared. What has happened? Whether they, being crossed to newly arrived, formed new hybrid populations, whether were exterminated by our ancestors in fight for existence?

Long time was considered that the second hypothesis is more plausible especially as, on estimations of archeologists, there were very few Neanderthal men. Archeologists dated the last traces of Neanderthal men found in the territory of Gibraltar 28 - 30 thousand years ago.

However more detailed researches allowed to establish that Neanderthal men lived not only in Europe, but also in the Middle East, in the Western and Central Asia, even in Siberia. They possessed ability to the speech, were able to do remarkable instruments of labor, used skins for protection against cold, possessed medicine rudiments (in particular, were able to treat changes), created rock paintings, were able to use musical instruments. In any case, the first bone flute were it is found on the parking of Neanderthal men.

The American anthropologists studying DNA of modern people established that the mankind twice, about 60 and 45 thousand years ago, endured the surges in a genetic variety caused, most likely, by crossing with some closely related types of people. For a role of this look Neanderthal men as all other types already died out 60 thousand years ago most of all approach (in any case, their later traces are not found yet).

Besides, the American geneticists established that the gene , responsible for growth of a human brain, appeared at people about 37 thousand years ago and quickly extended as, probably, gave to its carriers some advantages (quite possibly, from this point at people began scientifically - technical progress). At the same time this gene appeared rather suddenly, not as a result of long evolution, as usual happens, and, most likely, as a result of crossing with Neanderthal men or other archaic representatives of the human race.

To establish whether crossing of people (kromanyonets) and Neanderthal men took place, the object for comparison was necessary. As for the present any Neanderthal man was not found presently, only the remains of their bones dated time of their existence on Earth could provide genetic material.

These stones found not so much so it was necessary to collect the most remained from them, and in 2006 the project of the UN on interpretation of DNA of Neanderthal men started. At first for this work 2 years were allotted, but the unforeseen obstacle appeared. On bones of Neanderthal men many thousands of years lived various microorganisms which left on them the and genetic mark. Well, and people touched these stones. So it was necessary to create special techniques and the computer program for office of genetic material of Neanderthal men in pure form from others. Therefore the main results were received not through 2, and in 3,5 years, and researches still continue.

In spite of the fact that most of the researchers occupied in the project had a prejudiced negative opinion on a possibility of crossing of people and Neanderthal men, it was necessary to them, relying on results of experiences, to agree that crossing nevertheless happened. It turned out that genomes of people and Neanderthal men differ only for 0,16%. It seems that these differences are small, but they are connected, for example, with functions of skin, cogitative activity and a power exchange. And these differences, probably, also defined evolutionary advantages of kromanyonets in comparison with other hominids that allowed people to breed and be settled so.

So Neanderthal men and other hominids died out, but in many of us there lives their part. In particular, it is established that the genome of kinds of Homo sapiens contains from 1 to 4% of Neanderthal impurity. And here they are not in a genome of indigenous people of Africa that confirms with all evidence: crossings happened after people moved from Africa to Europe and further everywhere. The genome of Neanderthal men was more similar to genomes of Europeans, Asians and Papuans. And the greatest divergences are observed with Africans.

There are bases to believe that Neanderthal men accelerated evolution of the people borrowing their public organization (larger communities) and fitness to freezing conditions, and also some manufacturing techniques of instruments of labor. Their specialization as look could be one of the reasons of extinction of Neanderthal men: they were adapted for life in the conditions of a freezing and could not sustain the climatic changes which followed it for which kromanyonets were better adapted. But, whatever small was a genetic trace of Neanderthal men in a genome of people, now it is already impossible to claim that Neanderthal men (and, maybe, and other hominids) disappeared completely.

These data caused the hardened disputes between scientists and between simple people. Analyzing arguments of these disputes, there are bases to believe that is the loudest and with the greatest insults those who are lineal descendants of Neanderthal men shout. Well, they do not want to recognize similar relationship! And what here such bad? Neanderthal men had a brain more, than kromanyonets, the best, in comparison with them, public organization, had, judging by their drawings, quite good idea of world around, were physically stronger than people etc. It is only possible to be proud of such relatives!

Generally, people and Neanderthal men occurred from the general ancestor, not sickly too about 500 thousand years ago, more than 400 thousand years accumulated experience and genetic changes, then united again, and in results we turned out. And thank God!

And to all representatives of a type of Homo sapiens who will read it I wish good luck, good kromanyonsky health, Neanderthal force and all best. Amen!