What behind a facade? Reconstruction of old buildings
if it so, what there is beauty
I why it is idolized by people?
the Vessel it, in which emptiness,
Or fire, flickering in a vessel?
Oh, how many times in life we were deceived by appearance! In the childhood still learned that not always in a beautiful candy wrapper there is the most tasty candy. But having matured - both boys, and girls, - learned to smarten up. So to speak, to plaster a facade. Meet - that on clothes!
However, and this popular wisdom is a subject for disputes. And not only among philosophers, but also among the people occupied with affairs very concrete. Let`s tell, among architects who still did not solve finally a problem of expansion and updating old, historical, the cities.
This problem arises daily. On the one hand, historical buildings cease to carry out the direct function - the modern person neither to work, nor cannot live in them any more. On the other hand, the city is nice for these old houses. To bear them - all the same that to rob itself. The most striking example - Venice. The increasing number of its inhabitants moves to modern houses on coast of a lagoon and work in the same place. Ancient palaces remain as scenery for romantic tourists.
In dynamic America the problem of preservation of historical buildings costs even more sharply, than in Europe. Philadelphia or Boston, of course, is much younger than Venice. But for this reason here historical buildings 18 - go, 19 - go rightfully are considered, and sometimes even began 20 - go centuries. Not to mention those houses which saw “founding fathers“. Elite American universities too will not agree to demolish for anything old cases which just and are the certificate of their elitism.
Here also architects should balance on a razor edge. That it is better: to be engaged in capital repairs of second-hand articles (even if also historical) or to safely demolish the decayed construction. Having limited to placement on a wall of the new building of the memorial board beginning mourning words: “On this place to it - that was years...“ So at the time of the baron Osman without pity demolished medieval Paris, having actually built the new city on its place. In own way (and differently) solve these problems in St. Petersburg and in Moscow.
However, there is also the third decision. The building, not suitable for further use, is destroyed, having left untouched only a facade. Behind this facade build the new modern building, often and for the new purposes intended. The look at the old house or at the old street remains the same. And here contents radically changes. And the price for the earth in the historical area jumps up to heights astronomical too. And now - welcome, misters tourists! For you in the first floors arrange cafe, shops and the museums! Such approach to reconstruction of buildings is called fasadizmy .
Comparison of a fasadizm with cosmetic surgery arises. It too updating of an old face, attempt to put it in order, having cleaned former scars and wrinkles and even - oh, a miracle! - having replaced the old head with new.
The technology is difficult, but well developed. Before reorganization a facade that did not fail, fix by a special external framework. If the building is revetted, simply investigate facing, having carefully numbered each plate. Then old walls pull down and build a new box, leaving on former places window and doorways. The new building is covered with the kept old facing, thereby returning it a “pre-perestroika“ look.
At the same time the wide field of activity is provided to architects. It is possible to re-plan the building so that its new function did not “stick out“. It is possible to emphasize the happened changes, on the contrary. For example, over the two-storeyed lordly mansion restored in the previous form to uplift modern betonno - a glass construction with tinted windows. It is possible to make also a peculiar compromise: to show only a small piece of “the wonderful new world“. A classical example - the glass pyramid in Louvre yard covering the modernist underground floor of the museum. She is visible from the yard, but does not close ancient facades. So to speak, designates the presence - and only.
And now we will jump from Paris to Jerusalem. To the city to which it is more than three thousand years. Not so much on light of the cities is more senior.
However behind walls of the Old city construction began about 150 years ago. And once the city went beyond medieval limits, its rapid and spontaneous growth began. Who where bought the land, that also built up it according to purse contents, personal tastes and the dominating fashion. The eclectic city where levantiysky and western styles, traditionalism and innovation mixed up resulted. Mixed up, and then connected so that you will not tear off. In only one and a half centuries new buildings became part of urban history, folklore and even got on pages of literary works. So to architects it is necessary not only to modernize Jerusalem, but also to care for preservation of appearance of the buildings which already became historical and storing color of the city.
A good example of reorganization of old buildings for new needs is the Jerusalem Mamil Street which was already among tourist objects, obligatory for visit.