Prince, marquis, duke … What rare noble titles were used in Russia?
In the world exist a significant amount of various noble titles, the part of them was applied also in Russia in due time. The title of the prince was historically main and almost only title in Russia. Since the time of Peter I titles of the Russian counts and barons who complained the Russian subject monarch were added to him.
It is possible to distinguish two groups from the rare noble titles applied in Russia - the titles appropriated by the Russian monarchs to the citizens and the titles recognized for the Russian citizens, but appropriated to them abroad.
There is not a lot of titles which officially complained to the noblemen who were not representatives of the dynasty ruling in Russia - the tsar, the tsarevitch, the prince, the duke. The certain governors of the nomadic and mountain people passing under the power of the Russian tsar and their descendants became tsars and tsarevitches, as a rule.
The first Sain - Bulat the khan (in a baptism Simeon Bekbulatovich) who Ivan the Terrible in 1575 was proclaimed by the tsar and the grand duke vseya Russia received the tsar`s title. Since 1576 it was registered in digit lists as the tsar Tver as and actually received for some time in board the Grand duchy Tver.
In 1569 the title of the tsar Siberian was recognized for the khan Kuchum who was Genghis Khan`s descendant. It carried this title to death in 1598. His descendants after resettlement to Russia received titles of tsarevitches which carried before the beginning of the 18th century. Only in 1718 on Peter I`s command they began to be called as princes Siberian.
Boris Godunov in 1598 granted a title of the tsar Kasimovsky to the captured Kyrgyz (then so called also Kazakhs) Uraz - to Muhammad, the eldest son Ondan of the sultan. In the period of the Time of Troubles Uraz - Muhammad came over to False Dmitry II`s side and died at not until the end of the found-out circumstances.
Mikhail, the first tsar from Romanov` dynasty, granted a vacant title of the tsar Kasimovskogo Arslan to the khan, the representative of the Siberian dynasty in 1614. His descendants carried titles of tsarevitches Kasimovsky. The sort was stopped at the beginning of the 18th century.
Since the 16th century when close ties of Russia and Georgia began to develop, for the Georgian governors the tsar`s title was recognized. The descendants of the Georgian tsars moving to Russia received titles of tsarevitches. In some documents they were called also princes. After final accession of Georgia to Russia, all tsarevitches and princes Georgian received titles of princes. So, the grandfather of the glorified commander Pyotr Bagration, Alexander, carried a title of the tsarevitch, but the father, having turned into the Russian citizenship, was already approved only in a princely title.
Persian descendants of the Persian shah Fekht - Ali used titles of princes in Russia. By the way, A. V was a prince of royal blood of the Sardinian kingdom. Suvorov, but this title was not transferred to his son Arkady.
A. D. Menshikov who received a title of the lightest duke Izhora from Peter I in 1707 was the only Russian duke. To Menshikov`s children, after their return from the reference, the empress Anna Ioannovna allowed to use only titles of the lightest princes.
Grants of titles of the tsar, the tsarevitch, the prince and the duke in Russia were extremely rare. Since the time of Peter I the Russian emperors traditionally favored the citizen titles of princes, counts and barons of the Russian Empire. All other titles were, as a rule, introduced from - for borders, and the emperor only gave a pleasure on their application and reckoning of their owners to the Russian titled nobility. Among foreign titles the lion`s share was occupied princely, count and baronial, but there were also more rare.
Perhaps, among rare titles titles of princes and dukes were most widespread. Numerous relatives of a dynasty of Romanov who in search of money and ranks gathered in Russia from all Europe had them. Princes and dukes Oldenburg and Maklenburgsky long lived in Russia, held high positions in government and in army, entered marriages with Romanov, but, as a rule, did not become the Russian citizen, keeping the illusive rights for thrones of the states.
The contribution of some foreign princes and dukes to development of the Russian state was very considerable, they considered it as the second homeland. So, prince Alexander Petrovich Oldenburgsky participated in several wars, was awarded by the Order of Saint George 4 - y degrees and a gold saber with the inscription “For Bravery“, ordered the Guards case, then was senator and the member of the State Council. The prince considered as the main business of the life charity. He was a trustee of several educational institutions, shelters, communities of sisters of mercy, and for Imperial institute of experimental medicine on own money got the big building. In 1899 to the prince the rank “The honourable citizen of St. Petersburg“ which except it only 6 people had was given.
In Russia there were not only Romanov` relatives. The duke Maksimilian Leykhtenbergsky, Napoleon`s grandson, married Nicholas I Maria`s daughter and forever moved to Russia.
There were in Russia also marquises - descendants of childbirth to de Traversa, put Albizzi, Gonzago - Myshkovsky, Pauluchchi. They became citizens of the Russian Empire and at different times acquired the right to use a title of the marquis. When the family of marquises of Gonzago - Myshkovsky was interrupted, the emperor made the decision to transfer their coat of arms, a title and a surname to columns by Velepolsky.
After Napoleonic wars the king of Great Britain George III built the chief physician of the Russian army valid councilor of state Ya. V. Villiye in the dignity of the baronet which was recognized in Russia. If I am not mistaken, Yakov Vasilyevich Villiye became the ancestor of the first and only Russian family of baronets who to the end of the century was stopped.
There was in the country also the only family of viscounts, this title was recognized for Leopold de Verni at the beginning of the 19th century the senatorial commission considering recognition of titles for noblemen of the Kingdom Polish.
For some representatives of the nobility of the nomadic people which turned into citizenship of the Russian Empire in the XVIII-XIX centuries, but actually of Russia did not move to the territory, local titles of khans remained. Subsequently these people received the Russian nobility, but, as a rule, without titles. In this case the local title “khan“ joined a surname. For example, Bakikhanova - descendants of the Baku khans, Astrakhanova - descendants of the Astrakhan khans, Valikhanova - descendants of khans of the Kazakh Average zhuz. The similar principle of preservation of local titles was applied also after accession to Russia of the Kokand khanate, Khiva and Bukhara.
As well as all Russian nobility, owners of rare titles lost them in the territory of Russia in November, 1917. If they also continued by them to use, then during service in white armies, and then in emigration.